Smart Grid Standards: Specifications, Requirements, and Technologies

Smart Grid Standards: Specifications, Requirements, and Technologies

By: Jun Wu (author), Muhammad Tariq (author), Bin Duan (author), Takuro Sato (author), Martin Macuha (author), Zhenyu Zhou (author), Daniel M. Kammen (author), Solomon Abebe Asfaw (author)Hardback

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Description

A fully comprehensive introduction to smart grid standards and their applications for developers, consumers and service providers The critical role of standards for smart grid has already been realized by world-wide governments and industrial organizations. There are hundreds of standards for Smart Grid which have been developed in parallel by different organizations. It is therefore necessary to arrange those standards in such a way that it is easier for readers to easily understand and select a particular standard according to their requirements without going into the depth of each standard, which often spans from hundreds to thousands of pages. The book will allow people in the smart grid areas and in the related industries to easily understand the fundamental standards of smart grid, and quickly find the building-block standards they need from hundreds of standards for implementing a smart grid system. The authors highlight the most advanced works and efforts now under way to realize an integrated and interoperable smart grid, such as the NIST Framework and Roadmap for Smart Grid Interoperability Standards Release 2.0 , the IEC Smart Grid Standardization Roadmap , the ISO/IEC s Smart Grid Standards for Residential Customers , the ZigBee/HomePlug s Smart Energy Profile Specification 2.0 , IEEE s P2030 Draft Guide for Smart Grid Interoperability of Energy Technology and Information Technology Operation with the Electric Power System (EPS), and End-Use Applications and Loads , and the latest joint research project results between the world s two largest economies, US and China. The book enables readers to fully understand the latest achievements and ongoing technical works of smart grid standards, and assist industry utilities, vendors, academia, regulators, and other smart grid stakeholders in future decision making. The book begins with an overview of the smart grid, and introduces the opportunities in both developed and developing countries. It then examines the standards for power grid domain of the smart grid, including standards for blackout prevention and energy management, smart transmission, advanced distribution management and automation, smart substation automation, and condition monitoring. Communication and security standards as a whole are the backbone of smart grid and their standards, including those for wired and wireless communications, are then assessed. Finally the authors consider the standards and on-going work and efforts for interoperability and integration between different standards and networks, including the latest joint research effort between the world s two largest economies, US and China. * A fully comprehensive introduction to smart grid standards and their applications for developers, consumers and service providers * Covers all up-to-date standards of smart grid, including the key standards from NIST, IEC, ISO ZigBee, IEEE, HomePlug, SAE, and other international and regional standardization organizations. The Appendix summarizes all of the standards mentioned in the book * Presents standards for renewable energy and smart generation, covering wind energy, solar voltaic, fuel cells, pumped storage, distributed generation, and nuclear generation standards. Standards for other alternative sources of energy such as geothermal energy, and bioenergy are briefly introduced * Introduces the standards for smart storage and plug-in electric vehicles, including standards for distributed energy resources (DER), electric storage, and E-mobility/plug-in vehicles The book is written in an accessible style, ideal as an introduction to the topic, yet contains sufficient detail and research to appeal to the more advanced and specialist reader.

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About Author

Takuro Sato Waseda University, Japan Daniel M. Kammen University of California, Berkeley, USA Bin Duan Xiangtan University, China Martin Macuha France Telecom Japan Co. Ltd., Japan Zhenyu Zhou North China Electric Power University, China Jun Wu Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China Solomon Abebe Asfaw University of California, Berkeley, USA Muhammad Tariq FAST National University of Computer and Emerging Sciences, Pakistan

Contents

About the Authors xi Preface xv Acknowledgments xvii 1 An Overview of the Smart Grid 1 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 An Overview of Smart Grid-Related Organizations 3 1.2.1 SDOs Dealing with the Smart Grid 4 1.2.2 Technical Consortia, Forums, and Panels Dealing with the Smart Grid 9 1.2.3 Other Political, Market, and Trade Organizations, Forums, and Alliances 12 1.3 Status of the United States (US) 15 1.3.1 Strategy Development and Planning 15 1.3.2 Policy and Law Enforcement 18 1.3.3 Government and Company Pilot Projects 19 1.4 Status of the European Union (EU) 20 1.4.1 Activities of the European Union 20 1.4.2 Activities of EU Member Countries 22 1.5 Status of Japan 25 1.6 Status of South Korea 27 1.7 Status of China 28 1.8 Conclusions 30 References 30 2 Renewable Energy Generation 35 2.1 Introduction 35 2.2 Renewable Energy Systems and the Smart Grid 37 2.2.1 Hydroelectric Power 37 2.2.2 Solar Energy 40 2.2.3 Wind Energy 51 2.2.4 Fuel Cell 56 2.2.5 Geothermal Energy 60 2.2.6 Biomass 64 2.3 Challenges of Renewable Energy Systems 73 2.3.1 High Capital Cost 73 2.3.2 Integrating Renewable to the On-Grid 74 2.3.3 Reliable Supply of Power 74 2.3.4 Power Transmission 74 2.3.5 Power Distribution 74 2.4 Conclusion 75 References 75 3 PowerGrid 79 3.1 Power Grid Systems 80 3.2 An Overview of the Important Key Standards for the Power Grid 81 3.3 Communications in the Smart Grid 82 3.3.1 Communications for Substations: IEC 61850 Standards 82 3.3.2 Communications for Telecontrol: IEC 60870-5 Standards 88 3.3.3 Inter-Control Center Communications: IEC 60870-6 Standards 93 3.4 Energy Management Systems 97 3.4.1 Application Program Interface: the IEC 61970 Standards 97 3.4.2 Software Inter-Application Integration: the IEC 61968 Standards 102 3.5 Teleprotection Equipment 106 3.5.1 An Overview of the IEC 60834 106 3.5.2 Types of Teleprotection Command Schemes 107 3.5.3 Requirements for Command Type Teleprotection Systems 108 3.5.4 Teleprotection System Performance Requirements 108 3.5.5 Teleprotection System Performance Tests 110 3.6 Application Cases of Related Standards in the Power Grid 111 3.6.1 Case 1: Engineering Process in Smart Substation Automation 111 3.6.2 Case 2: Information Exchange Services and Service Tracking 117 3.7 Analysis of Relationships among Related Standards 125 3.7.1 IEC 61970 and IEC 61968 125 3.7.2 IEC 61850 and IEC 61970 126 3.7.3 IEC 61850 and IEC 60870 126 3.7.4 TASE.2 and MMS 127 3.7.5 Latest Progresses of Related Standards 128 3.8 Conclusion 129 Appendix 3.A A SED File Example (Extensible Markup Language) 129 References 140 4 Smart Storage and Electric Vehicles 145 4.1 Introduction 145 4.2 Electric Storage 146 4.2.1 An Overview of Electric Storage 146 4.2.2 Electric Storage Technologies and Applications 147 4.2.3 Standardization Projects and Efforts 151 4.3 Distributed Energy Resources 154 4.3.1 An Overview of Distributed Energy Resources 154 4.3.2 Technologies and Applications 155 4.3.3 Various Standardization Processes and Projects 158 4.4 E-Mobility/Electric Vehicles 160 4.4.1 Introduction of E-Mobility/Electric Vehicles 160 4.4.2 The Rise and Fall of Electric Vehicles 161 4.4.3 Types of Electric Vehicles 162 4.4.4 Electric Vehicle Batteries 164 4.4.5 Grid to Vehicle (G2V) and Vehicle to Grid (V2G) Opportunities and Challenges 166 4.4.6 Standardization of E-Mobility/Electric Vehicles 170 4.5 Conclusion 178 References 180 5 Smart Energy Consumption 183 5.1 Introduction 183 5.2 Demand Response 184 5.2.1 An Overview of Demand Response Technologies 184 5.2.2 Demand Response Technology and Barriers 185 5.2.3 Standardization Efforts Related to Demand Response 186 5.3 Advanced Metering Infrastructure Standards 188 5.3.1 The AMI System 189 5.3.2 The IEC 62056 and ANSI C12 Standards 189 5.3.3 Metering Standardization Projects and Efforts 194 5.4 Smart Home and Building Automation Standards 197 5.4.1 ISO/IEC Information Technology Home Electronic System (HES) 198 5.4.2 ZigBee/HomePlug Smart Energy Profile 2.0 207 5.4.3 OpenHAN 2.0 217 5.4.4 Z-Wave 221 5.4.5 ECHONET 224 5.4.6 ZigBee Home Automation Public Application Profile 228 5.4.7 BACnet 231 5.4.8 LONWORKS 233 5.4.9 INSTEON 235 5.4.10 KNX 235 5.4.11 ONE-NET 238 5.4.12 A Comparison of Smart Home and Building Automation Standards 239 5.5 Conclusion 242 References 242 6 Communications in the Smart Grid 247 6.1 Introduction 247 6.1.1 Communication Requirements for the Smart Grid 248 6.1.2 List of Standards 250 6.2 Architecture of the Communication System in the Smart Grid 256 6.2.1 IP in the Smart Grid 257 6.3 Wired Communication 259 6.3.1 Power Line Communication 259 6.3.2 Optical Communication 264 6.3.3 Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) and Ethernet 266 6.4 Wireless Communication 268 6.4.1 Introduction 268 6.4.2 Wireless Very Short Distance Communication 270 6.4.3 Wireless Personal and Local Area Networks and Related Technologies in the Unlicensed Spectrum 275 6.4.4 Cellular Networks in the Licensed Spectrum and WiMAX Technology 285 6.4.5 Satellite Communication 291 6.5 Conclusion 292 References 294 7 Security and Safety for Standardized Smart Grid Networks 299 7.1 Introduction 299 7.2 Threats and Vulnerabilities of Smart Grids 300 7.2.1 Network Vulnerabilities 300 7.2.2 Errors of Communications 301 7.3 Communication Network Standards of Smart Grids 302 7.3.1 Wireless Network Standards 302 7.3.2 Wired Network Standards and Their Safety Extensions 302 7.4 Wireless Network Security Mechanisms in the Smart Grids 303 7.4.1 An Overview of Security Mechanisms in the Wireless Standardized Smart Grid 303 7.4.2 Device Joining 303 7.4.3 Securing Normal Traffic 307 7.5 Wired Network Security/Safety Mechanisms in the Smart Grid 309 7.5.1 An Overview of Security Technologies in the Wired Smart Grid 310 7.5.2 Basic Security Mechanisms of Communication Infrastructure 311 7.5.3 Principles of Safety Extensions 312 7.5.4 Security Measures of Safety Extension 313 7.6 Typical Standards of Functional Security and Safety 316 7.6.1 IEC 62351 Standards 316 7.6.2 IEC 61508 Standards 319 7.7 Discussion 321 7.7.1 Safety versus Security 321 7.7.2 Security Level 321 7.7.3 Safety Level 322 7.7.4 Open Issues 322 7.8 Conclusion 324 References 325 8 Interoperability 329 8.1 Introduction 329 8.1.1 Interoperability and Interchangeability 330 8.1.2 The Challenges of Network Interoperability 330 8.1.3 Adding Application Interoperability 331 8.2 Interoperability Standards 332 8.3 NIST Identified List of Standards to Be Reviewed 333 8.4 NIST Interoperability 339 8.5 Conceptual Reference Model for the Smart Grid 339 8.6 Different Priority Areas Identified for Standardization 340 8.6.1 Wide-Area Situational Awareness 341 8.6.2 Demand Response and Consumer Energy Efficiency 341 8.6.3 Smart Energy Storage 342 8.6.4 Electric Transportation 342 8.6.5 Cybersecurity 342 8.6.6 Network Communications 343 8.6.7 Advanced Metering Infrastructure 344 8.6.8 Distribution Grid Management 344 8.7 Priority Action Plans 344 8.8 Different Layers of Interoperability 346 8.9 Conclusion 347 References 348 9 Integration of Variable Renewable Resources 351 9.1 Introduction 351 9.2 Challenges of Grid Integration of Intermittent Renewable Systems 352 9.2.1 Operation of a Conventional Electric Power System 352 9.2.2 Impact of Adding Intermittent Renewable Systems to the Power Grid 354 9.3 Transitioning to Highly Renewable Electricity Grid 357 9.3.1 Planning Studies 357 9.4 Very High Penetration and Grid-Scale Storage 363 9.4.1 Grid-Matching Analysis Case of the Israeli Grid 363 9.4.2 Storage Design and Dispatch Case of Interconnected Grid 366 9.5 List of Standards Related to Integration of Renewable Resources 374 9.6 Conclusion and Recommendations 375 References 375 10 Future of the Smart Grid 379 10.1 The Premise of the Smart Grid 379 10.2 What the Smart Grid Should Deliver? 380 10.2.1 Clean Electricity 381 10.2.2 System Flexibility 381 10.2.3 Affordable Service 383 10.2.4 Reliable and Sustainable Electricity Grid 387 10.3 Challenges of the Smart Grid 387 10.3.1 Designing for a Broader Purpose 387 10.3.2 Operational Challenges 389 10.3.3 Policy Challenges 390 10.4 Future Directions 391 10.5 Conclusion 392 References 392 List of Standards for the Smart Grid 395 Index 459

Product Details

  • publication date: 21/04/2015
  • ISBN13: 9781118653692
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 488
  • ID: 9781118653692
  • weight: 882
  • ISBN10: 1118653696

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