This book explains and demonstrates to students when to use and how to apply the quantitative and qualitative techniques that they'll need to do their own social research. Using actual examples from psychology, sociology, anthropology, health and education, the book provides readers with both a conceptual understanding of each technique as well as showing them how to use the technique.
H. Russell Bernard is Professor of Anthropology, Emeritus at the University of Florida. He served as editor of the American Anthropologist and Human Organization. He is co-founder (with Pertti Pelto and Stephen Borgatti) of the Cultural Anthropology Methods journal (1989), which became Field Methods in 1999. The five editions of his methods text Research Methods in Anthropology (AltaMira 2006) and his general research methods text Social Research Methods (Sage 2012), have been used by tens of thousands of students. Bernard co-founded (with Pelto) and co-directed (with Pelto and Borgatti) the National Science Foundation's Institute on Research Methods in Cultural Anthropology and has done fieldwork in Greece, Mexico, and the U.S.A. His publications include (with Jesus Salinas Pedraza) Native Ethnography: A Otomi Indian Describes His Culture (Sage, 1989). Bernard is known as well for his work, with Peter Killworth, Eugene Johnsen, Christopher McCarty, and Gene A. Shelley, on network analysis, including work on the network scale-up method for estimating hard-to-count populations. In 2010, Bernard was elected to the National Academy of Sciences.
Part I: Background to Research Chapter 1. About Social Science Chapter 2. The Foundations of Social Research Chapter 3. Preparing for Research Part II: Research Design Chapter 4. Research Design: Experiments and Experimental Thinking Chapter 5. Sampling: The Basics Chapter 6. Sampling Theory Chapter 7. Nonprobability Sampling Part III: Data Collection Chapter 8. Interviewing I: Unstructured and Semistructured Chapter 9. Interviewing II: Questionnaires Chapter 10. Interviewing III: Relational Data - Domains and Networks Chapter 11. Scales and Scaling Chapter 12: Participant Observation Chapter 13. Field Notes and Database Management Chapter 14: Direct and Indirect Observation Part IV Data Analysis Chapter 15: Introduction to Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis Chapter 16: Analyzing Cultural Domains and Proximity Matrices Chapter 17. Analyzing Qualitative Data I: Applying Logic to Text Chapter 18. Analyzing Qualitative Data II: Grammar Beyond the Sentence Chapter 19. Analyzing Qualitative Data III: Grounded Theory and Content Analysis Chapter 20. Univariate Analysis Chapter 21. Bivariate Analysis: Testing Relations Chapter 22. Multivariate Analysis Appendix A: Table of Areas under a Normal Curve Appendix B: Student's t Distribution Appendix C: Chi-Square Distribution Table Appendix D: F Table for the .05 Level of Significance Appendix E: Resources for Social Researchers