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Building on the success of previous editions, Social Studies for the Elementary and Middle Grades discusses flexible strategies for teaching today's diverse learner, the structure of the knowledge to be learned, how to help students reconstruct present ideas, and how to translate theory and recent research into lesson plans and units. Packed with activities, up-to-date technology, teaching strategies, and a constructivist approach, this text demonstrates how to use developmentally appropriate strategies to help students construct important social studies ideas and skills.
Chapter 1: What is Powerful and Meaningful Social Studies?Exploratory IntroductionChapter OverviewChapter ObjectivesDevelopment: Social Studies in the Elementary and Middle SchoolA First-Grade Classroom SceneA Sixth-Grade Classroom SceneTime for Reflection: What Do You Think?What Is Purposeful and Powerful Social Studies?Building on Diversity Box: Meaningful Social StudiesDefining Social StudiesEducation for Active CitizenshipUsing Technology Box: Deciding Whether and WhenSocial Studies CurriculumPlanning Powerful Social Studies LessonsLearning Cycle Lesson Plan: From Tree to PaperTime for Reflection: What Do You Think?Making a Literature Connection Box: Using Trade Books in Social StudiesSocial Studies is EssentialExpansion:SummaryRecommended Websites to Visit Chapter 2: How Do Students Engage in Powerful and Meaningful Social Studies?Exploratory IntroductionChapter OverviewChapter ObjectivesHow is Social Studies Best Taught in Today's Classrooms?Development: Applying What We Know About Meaningful Learning to Social Studies CurriculumUsing Constructivist Theory in Social Studies InstructionUsing Behavioral Learning Theory in Social Studies InstructionAn Effective Strategy to Promote Conceptual ChangePhases of a Learning Cycle LessonLearning Cycle Lesson Plan: ScaleTime for Reflection: What Do You Think?Exploratory IntroductionDevelopmentExpansionLesson SummaryChoosing Activities for Each Phase of the Learning Cycle LessonTime for Reflection: What Do You Think?Building on Diversity BoxStudent Assessment in Each Phase of the Learning CycleWriting Your Own Learning Cycle LessonThe Optimal Length of Time for a Learning CycleWorking With the Learning CycleExpansion: Principles of Teaching and Learning that Support the Curriculum Standards for the Social StudiesTime for Reflection: What Do You Think?SummaryRecommended Websites to Visit Chapter 3: How Are Students Social Studies Inquiry Skills Learned?Exploratory IntroductionChapter OverviewChapter ObjectivesDevelopment: Using Inquiry Skills to Develop Students' Social Studies IdeasEarly Inquiry SkillsSocial Studies Inquiry SkillsData-Gathering SkillsData-Organizing SkillsData-Processing SkillsCommunicating SkillsReflecting SkillsTime for Reflection: What Do You Think?Using Technology BoxTime for Reflection: What Do You Think?Observations, Inferences, and HypothesesObservationsInferencesHypothesesDeveloping and Using Guiding HypothesesTime for Reflection: What Do You Think?Teaching Lessons in Which Students Use Integrative Thinking SkillsCritical ThinkingProblem Solving and Decision MakingInvestigatingCreative ThinkingTime for Reflection: What Do You Think?Creating Conditions that Promote Student Thinking in Social StudiesLesson CharacteristicsPlanning Activities to Teach Inquiry SkillsExpansion: Applying a Learning Cycle to Teach an Inquiry SkillLearning Cycle Lesson Plan: How Can We Classify Native American Food Plants?Time for Reflection: What Do You Think?Assessing the Use of Inquiry SkillsHierarchy of Inquiry SkillsClassroom Scenario: The Mystery in the Back YardTime for Reflection: What Do You Think?SummaryRecommended Websites to Visit Chapter 4: How Are Social Studies Concepts and Generalizations Developed?Exploratory IntroductionChapter OverviewChapter ObjectivesConcept Teaching Starts with Reflection and PracticeA Fourth-Grade Classroom SceneDevelopment: Facts as Social Studies ConceptsClassroom Scenario: Constructing a Concept of AggressionForming ConceptsIdentifying All Important Attributes of a conceptTime for Reflection: What Do You Think?Types of ConceptsTime for Reflection: What Do You Think?Interrelationships Among ConceptsTime for Reflection: What Do You Think?Differences in Complexity and Abstractness of ConceptsTime for Reflection: What Do You Think?Powerful Concept TeachingThe Concept Learning CycleTeaching Concepts of Varying Complexity and Abstractness DifferentlyBuilding on Diversity BoxLearning Cycle Lesson Plan: Productive ResourcesTime for Reflection: What Do You Think?Assessment of Concept LearningUsing Technology BoxGeneralizations Show Relationships Between ConceptsForming GeneralizationsDefining GeneralizationsDistinguishing Generalizations from Facts and ConceptsUsing Generalizations to Make PredictionsMaking a Literature Connection BoxTypes of GeneralizationsTeaching Powerful GeneralizationsTime for Reflection: What Do You Think?The Exploratory Introduction Phase of a Generalization Learning CycleThe Lesson Development Phase of a Generalization Learning CycleThe Expansion Phase of a Generalization Learning CycleLearning Cycle Lesson Plan: Using Technology to Investigate a Problem: Why Are Cities Built Where Rivers Come Together?Formative Evaluation and Assessment In Constructing GeneralizationsExpansion: Applying Concepts and Generalizations to Create Powerful and Meaningful Social StudiesSummaryRecommended Websites to Visit Chapter 5: How Do Students Develop Citizenship in Democratic and Global Societies? Exploratory IntroductionChapter OverviewChapter Objectives Development: Defining Citizenship in a Democratic SocietyDeveloping Political AwarenessTime for Reflection: What Do You Think?Citizenship and StandardsKey Concepts and ValuesLearning Cycle Lesson Plan: Voting is a Way to Make DecisionsTime for Reflection: What Do You Think?Assessing Civic Education in U. S. SchoolsResources for Citizenship EducationMedia ResourcesMaking a Literature Connection: Selecting a Trade Book That Stresses Social StudiesLaw-Related EducationLearning Cycle Lesson Plan: Presidential OathTime for Reflection: What Do You Think?Participating in DemocracyTime for Reflection: What Do You Think?School-Based Community Service ProjectsParticipation in Student GovernmentBuilding on Diversity box: The ChallengesUsing Technology box: CybercitizenshipPolitical ParticipationTime for Reflection: What Do You Think?ExpansionSummaryRecommended Websites to Visit Chapter 6: What is Social Studies' Contribution to Global Education? Exploratory IntroductionChapter OverviewChapter ObjectivesDevelopment: Global Education: An Evolving DefinitionGlobal Education Appropriate for Grades Kindergarten - 8Approaches to Global EducationBuilding on Diversity box: Finding the Views of People in Other NationsThe Cultural Approach to Global EducationGlobal Education Appropriate for K-8The Problems Approach to Global EducationTime for Reflection: What Do You Think?Interdisciplinary ConnectionsTeaching Global EducationResources for Teaching Global EducationComputers and the InternetLearning Cycle Unit Plan: Teaching About War to Help Create a More Humane WorldTime for Reflection: What Do You Think?Book SeriesResources for Current EventsExpansionSummaryRecommended Websites to Visit Chapter 7: How Do Teachers Use and Manage Social Studies Instructional Strategies Effectively?Exploratory IntroductionChapter OverviewChapter ObjectivesDevelopment: Social Studies Pedagogical content Knowledge (PCK)Teaching Dimensions That Support Meaningful LearningClarityVarietyTask OrientationStudent EngagementBest Practices: Teaching Strategies that Support Meaningful LearningQuestioningCooperative LearningUsing Technology box: Creating a Collaborative ClassroomA Continuum of Knowledge and InstructionMatching Instructional Strategies to Student NeedsExpository, or Direct, Instructional Methods: Lower Student ControlGuided Discovery Instructional Methods: Mixed Teacher and Student ControlInquiry and Problem-Solving/Decision-Making Instructional Methods: Greater Student ControlMatching Types of Instructional Activities to Each Phase of the LessonA Classroom Scene: One Teacher's Planning DecisionsTime for Reflection: What Do You Think?Useful Instructional Activities for the Exploratory Introduction PhaseCooperative Group ChallengeConfrontational Challenges or Discrepant EventsProblem ExplorationOpen ExplorationUseful Instructional Activities for the Lesson Development PhaseField TripsGuest SpeakersDemonstrationLecture or Teacher PresentationGamesRole-Playing and SimulationsRole-PlayingSimulationsWriting in Social StudiesDifficulties In Reading TextbooksDoing a Content Analysis of a TextbookDeveloping a Teaching Plan Using a TextbookTime for Reflection: What Do You Think?Social Studies KitsMaking a Literature Connection Box: Reading LiteratureBuilding on Diversity Box: Reading ActivitiesVisual Information and LiteracyLearning CentersInquiry InvitationUsing a WebQuestUseful Instructional Activities for the Expansion PhaseClassroom Management Strategies for Powerful Social StudiesAdvanced PlanningGiving DirectionsDistributing MaterialsOrganizing the BeginningGrouping StudentsUsing Classroom RulesCrating Lesson SmoothnessBeing a FacilitatorAssessment ConsiderationsExpansion: Making Decisions About Which Instructional Strategies to UseSummaryRecommended Websites to Visit Chapter 8: How Are Powerful and Meaningful Social Studies Units Constructed? Exploratory IntroductionChapter OverviewChapter ObjectivesDevelopment: Planning the Appropriate Focus for Social Studies UnitsThinking-Skills Focused UnitsConceptual and Thinking Skills-Focused UnitsUnits that Integrate School SubjectsTheme UnitsIssue and Problem-Solving UnitsTime for Reflection: What Do You ThinkHow to Choose Appropriate Topics for Integrated UnitsPlanning Integrated UnitsUsing a Column DesignDeveloping Integrated UnitsStep 1: Generating Ideas for the Topic of a UnitStep 2: Researching the TopicStep 3: Developing Essential or Focus QuestionsStep 4: Identifying Special Needs Among Students and Making AccommodationsStep 5: Developing Intended Learning OutcomesStep 6: Categorizing Intended Learning OutcomesStep 7: Creating an Idea WebStep 8: Developing a Rationale and goalsStep 9: Beginning the KWL ChartStep 10: Developing Learning ObjectivesStep 11: Developing an Assessment PlanTime for Reflection: What Do You Think?Step 12: Developing Lesson PlansStep 13: Developing Accommodations for TechnologyMaking a Literature Connection Box: Incorporating Social Studies Trade Books into UnitsStep 14: Implementing the UnitStep 15: Evaluating Student LearningStep 16: Reflecting on the UnitUsing Technology Box: Databases and SpreadsheetsExpansion: Conceptualizing an Integrated UnitTime for Reflection: What Do You Think?SummaryRecommended Websites to Visit Chapter 9: How Do Teachers Foster Students' Development as Individuals and Community Members?Exploratory IntroductionChapter OverviewChapter ObjectivesDevelopment: Respect for Diverse Students and Oneself as a TeacherLearning Cycle Lesson Plan: Sharing and NegotiationThe Curriculum Respects DiversityTime for Reflection: What Do You Think?Development of Self-Concept in Diverse StudentsIndependence and ResponsibilityJealousyFearsAggressive Feelings, Bullying, and Conflict ResolutionUsing Technology Box: Internet Safety and Cyber-BullyingFriendshipEmpathy and Helpful Prosocial BehaviorsSelf-EsteemValues and Moral Education in a Diverse SocietyBuilding on Diversity Box: Learning from the Voices of Our Family and CommunityThree Aspects of MoralityMoral Development TheoriesTeaching Approaches for Values EducationCharacter EducationAttitudes and Dispositions Promoting Powerful Social StudiesCuriosityRespect for EvidenceOpen-MindednessPerseveranceConsideration of Conflicting EvidenceReserving JudgmentFlexibilityResponsibility to Others and to the EnvironmentValues, Morals, and AestheticsMaking a Literature Connection Box: Demonstrating Powerful Attitudes and DispositionsAssessing How Diverse Students Relate to Individuals and CommunitiesTime for Reflection: What Do You Think?Expansion: Confronting Challenges to Students' Active, Responsible Development at CitizensTime for Reflection: What Do You Think?SummaryRecommended Websites to Visit Chapter 10: How Can I Involve All Students in Meaningful Social Studies? Exploratory IntroductionChapter OverviewChapter ObjectivesDevelopment: Meaningful Social Studies for All Students"Best Practices": Giving All Students Greater Control of Their Social Studies LearningSocial Studies Education for Students with DisabilitiesGeneral Instructional Strategies for Inclusive ClassroomsUsing Technology BoxMultisensory Activities.Cooperative Group Activities.Classwide Peer Tutoring.Peer Buddy System.Reciprocal Teaching. Reading Alone.Lecture-Based Presentation.Media Presentations.Strategies for Using Social Studies Textbooks.Study Guides.General Suggestions for Adapting Textbook Materials for a Diverse Classroom.Factors to be Considered in Adapting Social Studies Curricula and InstructionInvolving Students with Visual or Hearing ImpairmentsSocial Studies Education in a Culturally Diverse SocietyTime for Reflection: What Do You Think?Building on Diversity BoxCulturally Responsive TeachingSample Strategies for Multicultural Social StudiesHistorical ApproachCurrent Social IssuesUsing Student CultureRole Models and RelevancyRole ModelsMaking a Literature Connection BoxCulture and Gender Differences in Student-Teacher InteractionsHelping English Language Learners Participate in Social StudiesRecognizing and Scaffolding Language LearningInstructional Strategies for Helping ELL Students Understand Social Studies ContentAssessment of Social Studies Learning for All StudentsGroup Assessment Through Cooperative LearningGraphic OrganizersOral InterviewsProjectsPortfoliosJournal WritingExpansion: Applying Ideas for Helping All Students Learn Meaningful Social StudiesTime for Reflection: What Do You Think?SummaryRecommended Websites to Visit Chapter 11: How Do I Engage Students in Examining History?Exploratory IntroductionChapter OverviewChapter ObjectivesDevelopment: Definition of HistoryHistory in SchoolsLearning Cycle Lesson Plan: Learning from the Paintings and Drawings of ArtistsTime for Reflection: What Do You Think?Standards for HistoryBenefits of Studying HistoryStudents and the Learning of HistoryUsing Timelines to Develop ChronologyResources for Teaching HistoryLocating and Using Historical ResourcesPeople as ResourcesArtifacts and MuseumsThe Community as a ResourceDocuments as ResourcesDiaries, Letters, and Pictures as ResourcesVisual Literacy and HistoryReenactments and DramaTime for Reflection: What Do You Think?Biographies and Historical LiteratureBuilding on Diversity: Pitfalls in Selecting Multicultural BooksMaking a Literature Connection: Using Trade Books to Add Depth to History UnitsUsing Technology: Using Interactive Activities and Games in Learning HistoryExpansion: Your Skills in HistoryThe Lincoln Penny WorksheetTime for Reflection: What Do You Think?SummaryRecommended Websites to Visit Chapter 12: How Do I Engage Students in Interpreting the Earth and Its People Through Geography?Exploratory IntroductionChapter OverviewChapter ObjectivesDevelopment: Defining GeographyThe Five Themes of GeographyGeography and the National Social Studies StandardsLearning Cycle Lesson Plan: People Change Their EnvironmentsTime for Reflection: What Do You Think?Geography Education Standards the Six Elements of Geography EducationResources for Teaching GeographyUsing Technology box: An Important Contributor to Learning GeographyDeveloping Geographic Concepts, Generalizations, and SkillsA Classroom SceneTime for Reflection: What Do You Think?Research Findings on Geographic EducationTime for Reflection: What Do You Think?Making a Literature Connection box: Books Provide Different Cultural PerspectivesResearch on Map and Globe SkillsTime for Reflection: What Do You Think?Helping Students learn and Use Map and Globe SkillsShapes and PatternsSymbolsDirectionDistanceGrid SystemRemote Sensing and Digital Maps in the Teaching of GeographyNumbers: The Amount or Quality on Maps, in Atlases, and in TextbooksReading and MapsLearning Cycle Lesson Plan: Latitude and LongitudeTime for Reflection: What Do You Think?ExpansionSummaryRecommended Websites to Visit Chapter 13: How Do I Assist Students in Making Economic Decisions?Exploratory IntroductionChapter OverviewChapter ObjectivesDevelopment: Economic LiteracyDefining EconomicsNational Social Studies Standards Related to EconomicsVoluntary National Standards in EconomicsNational Standards in Personal FinanceEconomic Concepts and ValuesMacroeconomic ConceptsTime for Reflection: What Do You Think?Making a Literature Connection box: Trade Books Illustrating Economic ConceptsInternational Economic ConceptsLearning Cycle Lesson Plan: Economic InterdependenceMeasurement Concepts and MethodsEconomic Decision-Making SkillsEconomic Goals and ValuesChildren and the Learning of EconomicsApproaches to Teaching EconomicsLearning Cycle Lesson Plan: Advertisements and Making Good ChoicesTime for Reflection: What Do You Think?Using Technology boxResources for Teaching EconomicsExpansionSummaryRecommended Websites to Visit Chapter 14: How Do I Teach Students To Learn Through Multiple Assessments and Exploratory IntroductionChapter OverviewChapter ObjectivesDevelopment: Assessing and Evaluating Social Studies LearningWhen Evaluation and Assessment Are NeededGuiding Principles for Assessment and EvaluationNational Testing of Social StudiesTime for Reflection: What Do You Think?Assessment and Evaluation Beyond TestingConferences with Diverse Parents and FamiliesRubricsBuilding on Diversity boxModes of AssessmentChecklistsIndividual PortfoliosInterviewsClassroom WebsitesJournalsQuality CirclesSelf-Evaluation ReportsIdentifying Assessments Within a Lesson PlanLearning Cycle Lesson Plan: Making Good RulesTime for Reflection: What Do You Think?Action Research and Reflection: Becoming an Effective Social Studies TeacherTime for Reflection: What Do You Think?Expansion: Practicing Skills in Pre-AssessmentSummaryRecommended Websites to Visit
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