Software Evolution and Maintenance: A Practitioner's Approach

Software Evolution and Maintenance: A Practitioner's Approach

By: Kshirasagar Naik (author), Priyadarshi Tripathy (author)Hardback

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Description

Provides students and engineers with the fundamental developments and common practices of software evolution and maintenance Software Evolution and Maintenance: A Practitioner s Approach introduces readers to a set of well-rounded educational materials, covering the fundamental developments in software evolution and common maintenance practices in the industry. Each chapter gives a clear understanding of a particular topic in software evolution, and discusses the main ideas with detailed examples. The authors first explain the basic concepts and then drill deeper into the important aspects of software evolution. While designed as a text in an undergraduate course in software evolution and maintenance, the book is also a great resource forsoftware engineers, information technology professionals, and graduate students in software engineering. * Based on the IEEE SWEBOK (Software Engineering Body of Knowledge) * Explains two maintenance standards: IEEE/EIA 1219 and ISO/IEC14764 * Discusses several commercial reverse and domain engineering toolkits * Slides for instructors are available online Software Evolution and Maintenance: A Practitioner s Approach equips readers with a solid understanding of the laws of software engineering, evolution and maintenance models, reengineering techniques, legacy information systems, impact analysis, refactoring, program comprehension, and reuse.

About Author

Priyadarshi (Piyu) Tripathy, PhD, is a Director at Knowledge Trust, Bhubaneswar, India. Dr. Tripathy has worked in the field of Software Testing and Maintenance for Cisco Systems, Airvana, Inc. and NEC Laboratories, America Inc. in U. S. A. He has co-authored (with Dr. Naik) a textbook entitled Software Testing and Quality Assurance: Theory and Practice. Kshirasagar (Sagar) Naik, PhD, is a Professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of Waterloo. He has over twenty-four years of academic and industry experience in India, Japan, and Canada, including three years in Wipro Information Technology Limited, Bangalore.

Contents

Preface xiii List of Figures xvii List of Tables xxi 1 Basic Concepts and Preliminaries 1 1.1 Evolution Versus Maintenance, 1 1.1.1 Software Evolution, 3 1.1.2 Software Maintenance, 4 1.2 Software Evolution Models and Processes, 6 1.3 Reengineering, 9 1.4 Legacy Systems, 11 1.5 Impact Analysis, 12 1.6 Refactoring, 13 1.7 Program Comprehension, 14 1.8 Software Reuse, 15 1.9 Outline of the Book, 16 References, 18 Exercises, 23 2 Taxonomy of Software Maintenance and Evolution 25 2.1 General Idea, 25 2.1.1 Intention-Based Classification of Software Maintenance, 26 2.1.2 Activity-Based Classification of Software Maintenance, 28 2.1.3 Evidence-Based Classification of Software Maintenance, 28 2.2 Categories of Maintenance Concepts, 37 2.2.1 Maintained Product, 37 2.2.2 Maintenance Types, 40 2.2.3 Maintenance Organization Processes, 41 2.2.4 Peopleware, 43 2.3 Evolution of Software Systems, 44 2.3.1 SPE Taxonomy, 46 2.3.2 Laws of Software Evolution, 49 2.3.3 Empirical Studies, 54 2.3.4 Practical Implications of the Laws, 56 2.3.5 Evolution of FOSS Systems, 58 2.4 Maintenance of Cots-Based Systems, 61 2.4.1 Why Maintenance of CBS Is Difficult?, 62 2.4.2 Maintenance Activities for CBSs, 65 2.4.3 Design Properties of Component-Based Systems, 67 2.5 Summary, 70 Literature Review, 73 References, 75 Exercises, 80 3 Evolution and Maintenance Models 83 3.1 General Idea, 83 3.2 Reuse-Oriented Model, 84 3.3 The Staged Model for Closed Source Software, 87 3.4 The Staged Model for Free, Libre, Open Source Software, 90 3.5 Change Mini-Cycle Model, 91 3.6 IEEE/EIA Maintenance Process, 94 3.7 ISO/IEC 14764 Maintenance Process, 99 3.8 Software Configuration Management, 111 3.8.1 Brief History, 112 3.8.2 SCM Spectrum of Functionality, 113 3.8.3 SCM Process, 117 3.9 CR Workflow, 119 3.10 Summary, 125 Literature Review, 126 References, 129 Exercises, 131 4 Reengineering 133 4.1 General Idea, 133 4.2 Reengineering Concepts, 135 4.3 A General Model for Software Reengineering, 137 4.3.1 Types of Changes, 140 4.3.2 Software Reengineering Strategies, 141 4.3.3 Reengineering Variations, 143 4.4 Reengineering Process, 144 4.4.1 Reengineering Approaches, 144 4.4.2 Source Code Reengineering Reference Model, 146 4.4.3 Phase Reengineering Model, 150 4.5 Code Reverse Engineering, 153 4.6 Techniques Used for Reverse Engineering, 156 4.6.1 Lexical Analysis, 157 4.6.2 Syntactic Analysis, 157 4.6.3 Control Flow Analysis, 157 4.6.4 Data Flow Analysis, 158 4.6.5 Program Slicing, 158 4.6.6 Visualization, 160 4.6.7 Program Metrics, 162 4.7 Decompilation Versus Reverse Engineering, 164 4.8 Data Reverse Engineering, 165 4.8.1 Data Structure Extraction, 168 4.8.2 Data Structure Conceptualization, 169 4.9 Reverse Engineering Tools, 170 4.10 Summary, 174 Literature Review, 176 References, 178 Exercises, 185 5 Legacy Information Systems 187 5.1 General Idea, 187 5.2 Wrapping, 189 5.2.1 Types of Wrapping, 189 5.2.2 Levels of Encapsulation, 191 5.2.3 Constructing a Wrapper, 192 5.2.4 Adapting a Program for Wrapper, 194 5.2.5 Screen Scraping, 194 5.3 Migration, 195 5.4 Migration Planning, 196 5.5 Migration Methods, 202 5.5.1 Cold Turkey, 202 5.5.2 Database First, 203 5.5.3 Database Last, 204 5.5.4 Composite Database, 205 5.5.5 Chicken Little, 206 5.5.6 Butterfly, 208 5.5.7 Iterative, 212 5.6 Summary, 217 Literature Review, 218 References, 219 Exercises, 221 6 Impact Analysis 223 6.1 General Idea, 223 6.2 Impact Analysis Process, 225 6.2.1 Identifying the SIS, 228 6.2.2 Analysis of Traceability Graph, 229 6.2.3 Identifying the Candidate Impact Set, 231 6.3 Dependency-Based Impact Analysis, 234 6.3.1 Call Graph, 234 6.3.2 Program Dependency Graph, 235 6.4 Ripple Effect, 238 6.4.1 Computing Ripple Effect, 238 6.5 Change Propagation Model, 242 6.5.1 Recall and Precision of Change Propagation Heuristics, 243 6.5.2 Heuristics for Change Propagation, 245 6.5.3 Empirical Studies, 246 6.6 Summary, 247 Literature Review, 248 References, 249 Exercises, 253 7 Refactoring 255 7.1 General Idea, 255 7.2 Activities in a Refactoring Process, 258 7.2.1 Identify What to Refactor, 258 7.2.2 Determine Which Refactorings Should be Applied, 259 7.2.3 Ensure that Refactoring Preserves the Behavior of the Software, 261 7.2.4 Apply the Refactorings to the Chosen Entities, 262 7.2.5 Evaluate the Impacts of the Refactorings on Quality, 263 7.2.6 Maintain Consistency of Software Artifacts, 265 7.3 Formalisms for Refactoring, 265 7.3.1 Assertions, 265 7.3.2 Graph Transformation, 266 7.3.3 Software Metrics, 267 7.4 More Examples of Refactorings, 271 7.5 Initial Work on Software Restructuring, 273 7.5.1 Factors Influencing Software Structure, 273 7.5.2 Classification of Restructuring Approaches, 275 7.5.3 Restructuring Techniques, 276 7.6 Summary, 282 Literature Review, 283 References, 286 Exercises, 288 8 Program Comprehension 289 8.1 General Idea, 289 8.2 Basic Terms, 291 8.2.1 Goal of Code Cognition, 291 8.2.2 Knowledge, 291 8.2.3 Mental Model, 293 8.2.4 Understanding Code, 296 8.3 Cognition Models for Program Understanding, 298 8.3.1 Letovsky Model, 298 8.3.2 Shneiderman and Mayer Model, 301 8.3.3 Brooks Model, 303 8.3.4 Soloway, Adelson, and Ehrlich Model, 308 8.3.5 Pennington Model, 310 8.3.6 Integrated Metamodel, 312 8.4 Protocol Analysis, 315 8.5 Visualization for Comprehension, 317 8.6 Summary, 321 Literature Review, 321 References, 322 Exercises, 324 9 Reuse and Domain Engineering 325 9.1 General Idea, 325 9.1.1 Benefits of Reuse, 327 9.1.2 Reuse Models, 327 9.1.3 Factors Influencing Reuse, 328 9.1.4 Success Factors of Reuse, 329 9.2 Domain Engineering, 329 9.2.1 Draco, 331 9.2.2 DARE, 331 9.2.3 FAST, 331 9.2.4 FORM, 331 9.2.5 KobrA, 332 9.2.6 PLUS, 332 9.2.7 PuLSE, 332 9.2.8 Koala, 332 9.2.9 RSEB, 332 9.3 Reuse Capability, 333 9.4 Maturity Models, 334 9.4.1 Reuse Maturity Model, 334 9.4.2 Reuse Capability Model, 336 9.4.3 RiSE Maturity Model, 338 9.5 Economic Models of Software Reuse, 340 9.5.1 Cost Model of Gaffney and Durek, 346 9.5.2 Application System Cost Model of Gaffney and Cruickshank, 348 9.5.3 Business Model of Poulin and Caruso, 350 9.6 Summary, 352 Literature Review, 352 References, 353 Exercises, 356 Glossary 359 Index 379

Product Details

  • ISBN13: 9780470603413
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 416
  • ID: 9780470603413
  • weight: 696
  • ISBN10: 0470603410

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