Software Testing: Concepts and Operations (Quantitative Software Engineering Series)

Software Testing: Concepts and Operations (Quantitative Software Engineering Series)

By: Fairouz Tchier (author), Ali Mili (author)Hardback

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Description

Explores and identifies the main issues, concepts, principles and evolution of software testing, including software quality engineering and testing concepts, test data generation, test deployment analysis, and software test management This book examines the principles, concepts, and processes that are fundamental to the software testing function. This book is divided into five broad parts. Part I introduces software testing in the broader context of software engineering and explores the qualities that testing aims to achieve or ascertain, as well as the lifecycle of software testing. Part II covers mathematical foundations of software testing, which include software specification, program correctness and verification, concepts of software dependability, and a software testing taxonomy. Part III discusses test data generation, specifically, functional criteria and structural criteria. Test oracle design, test driver design, and test outcome analysis is covered in Part IV. Finally, Part V surveys managerial aspects of software testing, including software metrics, software testing tools, and software product line testing. * Presents software testing, not as an isolated technique, but as part of an integrated discipline of software verification and validation * Proposes program testing and program correctness verification within the same mathematical model, making it possible to deploy the two techniques in concert, by virtue of the law of diminishing returns * Defines the concept of a software fault, and the related concept of relative correctness, and shows how relative correctness can be used to characterize monotonic fault removal * Presents the activity of software testing as a goal oriented activity, and explores how the conduct of the test depends on the selected goal * Covers all phases of the software testing lifecycle, including test data generation, test oracle design, test driver design, and test outcome analysis Software Testing: Concepts and Operations is a great resource for software quality and software engineering students because it presents them with fundamentals that help them to prepare for their ever evolving discipline.

About Author

Fairouz Tchier is an Associate Professor at King Saud University in Saudi Arabia. Her main areas of research are discrete mathematics, theoretical computer science, Software engineering and fuzzy theory. Ali Mili is a Professor at New Jersey Institute of Technology. His research is focused on software engineering, including technical and organizational aspects, and on software engineering education.

Contents

PREFACE XIV ACKNOWLEDGMENTS XVIII PART I INTRODUCTION TO SOFTWARE TESTING 1 1 Software Engineering: A Discipline Like No Other 3 1.1 A Young, Restless Discipline 3 1.2 An Industry Under Stress 5 1.3 Large, Complex Products 5 1.4 Expensive Products 7 1.5 Absence of Reuse Practice 9 1.6 Fault-Prone Designs 9 1.7 Paradoxical Economics 10 1.7.1 A Labor-Intensive Industry 10 1.7.2 Absence of Automation 11 1.7.3 Limited Quality Control 11 1.7.4 Unbalanced Lifecycle Costs 12 1.7.5 Unbalanced Maintenance Costs 12 1.8 Chapter Summary 13 1.9 Bibliographic Notes 13 2 Software Quality Attributes 14 2.1 Functional Attributes 15 2.1.1 Boolean Attributes 15 2.1.2 Statistical Attributes 15 2.2 Operational Attributes 17 2.3 Usability Attributes 18 2.4 Business Attributes 19 2.5 Structural Attributes 20 2.6 Chapter Summary 21 2.7 Exercises 21 2.8 Bibliographic Notes 22 3 A Software Testing Lifecycle 23 3.1 A Software Engineering Lifecycle 23 3.2 A Software Testing Lifecycle 28 3.3 The V-Model of Software Testing 31 3.4 Chapter Summary 34 3.5 Bibliographic Notes 34 PART II FOUNDATIONS OF SOFTWARE TESTING 35 4 Software Specifications 37 4.1 Principles of Sound Specification 38 4.1.1 A Discipline of Specification 38 4.2 Relational Mathematics 39 4.2.1 Sets and Relations 39 4.2.2 Operations on Relations 39 4.2.3 Properties of Relations 41 4.3 Simple Input Output Programs 42 4.4 Representing Specifications 42 4.5 Ordering Specifications 46 4.6 Specification Generation 48 4.7 Specification Validation 53 4.7.1 Specification Generation Phase 56 4.7.2 Specification Validation Phase 57 4.8 Reliability Versus Safety 60 4.9 State-based Systems 61 4.9.1 A Relational Model 62 4.10 Axiomatic Representation 64 4.10.1 Specification of a Stack 65 4.10.2 Specification of a Queue 66 4.10.3 Specification of a Set 68 4.11 Specification Validation 69 4.12 Chapter Summary 71 4.13 Exercises 72 4.14 Problems 76 4.15 Bibliographic Notes 77 5 Program Correctness and Verification 79 5.1 Correctness: A Definition 80 5.2 Correctness: Propositions 83 5.2.1 Correctness and Refinement 83 5.2.2 Set Theoretic Characterizations 85 5.2.3 Illustrations 86 5.3 Verification 88 5.3.1 Sample Formulas 89 5.3.2 An Inference System 91 5.3.3 Illustrative Examples 94 5.4 Chapter Summary 98 5.5 Exercises 99 5.6 Problems 100 5.7 Bibliographic Notes 100 6 Failures, Errors, and Faults 101 6.1 Failure, Error, and Fault 101 6.2 Faults and Relative Correctness 103 6.2.1 Fault, an Evasive Concept 103 6.2.2 Relative Correctness 104 6.3 Contingent Faults and Definite Faults 107 6.3.1 Contingent Faults 107 6.3.2 Monotonic Fault Removal 109 6.3.3 A Framework for Monotonic Fault Removal 114 6.3.4 Definite Faults 114 6.4 Fault Management 116 6.4.1 Lines of Defense 116 6.4.2 Hybrid Validation 118 6.5 Chapter Summary 121 6.6 Exercises 122 6.7 Problems 123 6.8 Bibliographic Notes 124 7 A Software Testing Taxonomy 125 7.1 The Trouble with Hyphenated Testing 125 7.2 A Classification Scheme 126 7.2.1 Primary Attributes 127 7.2.2 Secondary Attributes 131 7.3 Testing Taxonomy 136 7.3.1 Unit-Level Testing 136 7.3.2 System-Level Testing 138 7.4 Exercises 139 7.5 Bibliographic Notes 140 PART III TEST DATA GENERATION 141 8 Test Generation Concepts 143 8.1 Test Generation and Target Attributes 143 8.2 Test Outcomes 146 8.3 Test Generation Requirements 148 8.4 Test Generation Criteria 152 8.5 Empirical Adequacy Assessment 155 8.6 Chapter Summary 160 8.7 Exercises 161 8.8 Bibliographic Notes 162 8.9 Appendix: Mutation Program 163 9 Functional Criteria 165 9.1 Domain Partitioning 165 9.2 Test Data Generation from Tabular Expressions 171 9.3 Test Generation for State Based Systems 176 9.4 Random Test Data Generation 184 9.5 Tourism as a Metaphor for Test Data Selection 188 9.6 Chapter Summary 190 9.7 Exercises 190 9.8 Bibliographic Notes 192 10 Structural Criteria 193 10.1 Paths and Path Conditions 194 10.1.1 Execution Paths 194 10.1.2 Path Functions 196 10.1.3 Path Conditions 201 10.2 Control Flow Coverage 202 10.2.1 Statement Coverage 202 10.2.2 Branch Coverage 204 10.2.3 Condition Coverage 207 10.2.4 Path Coverage 209 10.3 Data Flow Coverage 214 10.3.1 Definitions and Uses 214 10.3.2 Test Generation Criteria 217 10.3.3 A Hierarchy of Criteria 220 10.4 Fault-Based Test Generation 220 10.4.1 Sensitizing Faults 221 10.4.2 Selecting Input Data for Fault Sensitization 225 10.4.3 Selecting Input Data for Error Propagation 227 10.5 Chapter Summary 228 10.6 Exercises 229 10.7 Bibliographic Notes 232 PART IV TEST DEPLOYMENT AND ANALYSIS 233 11 Test Oracle Design 235 11.1 Dilemmas of Oracle Design 235 11.2 From Specifications to Oracles 238 11.3 Oracles for State-Based Products 242 11.3.1 From Axioms to Oracles 243 11.3.2 From Rules to Oracles 244 11.4 Chapter Summary 250 11.5 Exercises 251 12 Test Driver Design 254 12.1 Selecting a Specification 254 12.2 Selecting a Process 256 12.3 Selecting a Specification Model 258 12.3.1 Random Test Generation 258 12.3.2 Pre-Generated Test Data 264 12.3.3 Faults and Fault Detection 267 12.4 Testing by Symbolic Execution 270 12.5 Chapter Summary 275 12.6 Exercises 276 12.7 Bibliographic Notes 280 13 Test Outcome Analysis 281 13.1 Logical Claims 282 13.1.1 Concrete Testing 282 13.1.2 Symbolic Testing 283 13.1.3 Concolic Testing 284 13.2 Stochastic Claims: Fault Density 285 13.3 Stochastic Claims: Failure Probability 288 13.3.1 Faults are not Created Equal 288 13.3.2 Defining/Quantifying Reliability 290 13.3.3 Modeling Software Reliability 292 13.3.4 Certification Testing 295 13.3.5 Reliability Estimation and Reliability Improvement 296 13.3.6 Reliability Standards 300 13.3.7 Reliability as an Economic Function 301 13.4 Chapter Summary 308 13.5 Exercises 309 13.6 Problems 311 13.7 Bibliographic Notes 311 PART V MANAGEMENT OF SOFTWARE TESTING 313 14 Metrics for Software Testing 315 14.1 Fault Proneness 316 14.1.1 Cyclomatic Complexity 317 14.1.2 Volume 318 14.2 Fault Detectability 319 14.3 Error Detectability 322 14.4 Error Maskability 325 14.5 Failure Avoidance 326 14.6 Failure Tolerance 328 14.7 An Illustrative Example 329 14.7.1 Cyclomatic Complexity 329 14.7.2 Volume 330 14.7.3 State Redundancy 330 14.7.4 Functional Redundancy 330 14.7.5 Non-injectivity 331 14.7.6 Non-determinacy 331 14.7.7 Summary 332 14.8 Chapter Summary 332 14.9 Exercises 333 14.10 Bibliographic Notes 334 15 Software Testing Tools 335 15.1 A Classification Scheme 335 15.2 Scripting Tools 336 15.2.1 CppTest 336 15.2.2 SilkTest 337 15.3 Record-and-Replay Tools 338 15.3.1 TestComplete 338 15.3.2 Selenium IDE 339 15.4 Performance-Testing Tools 340 15.4.1 LoadRunner 340 15.4.2 Grinder 341 15.4.3 QF-Test 342 15.4.4 Appvance PerformanceCloud 342 15.4.5 JMeter 343 15.5 Oracle Design Tools 344 15.5.1 JUnit 344 15.5.2 TestNG 345 15.6 Exception Discovery 345 15.6.1 Rational Purify 345 15.6.2 Astree 346 15.7 Collaborative Tools 347 15.7.1 FitNesse 347 15.8 Chapter Summary 347 16 Testing Product Lines 349 16.1 PLE: A Streamlined reuse model 349 16.2 Testing Issues 353 16.3 Testing Approaches 355 16.4 Illustration 356 16.4.1 Domain Analysis 356 16.4.2 Domain Modeling 358 16.4.3 A Reference Architecture 361 16.4.4 Domain Implementation 362 16.4.5 Testing at Domain Engineering 367 16.4.6 Testing at Application Engineering 371 16.5 Chapter Summary 374 16.6 Exercises 374 16.7 Problems 374 16.8 Bibliographic References 375 BIBLIOGRAPHY 376 INDEX 000

Product Details

  • ISBN13: 9781118662878
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 368
  • ID: 9781118662878
  • weight: 716
  • ISBN10: 1118662873

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