Advances in computer technology and in the development of modern microwave test instruments over the past decade have given electrical engineers, researchers and university students a number of new approaches to study microwave components, devices and circuits. Vector network analyser (VNA) is a valuable tool for providing fast and accurate characterisation of microwave components and devices for other circuits working at high frequencies. This book together with associated software serves as an introduction to microwave network analysis, microwave components and devices, and microwave circuit design. Software VNA and Microwave Network Design and Characterisation also provides both device and circuit simulators powered by the analytical formulae presented in the book. The book consists of chapters on network analysis theory and network parameters, installation and functions of the software, built-in device models, circuit design and operation principles and design examples. The Software VNA provided with the book includes:* a trainer for users to gain experience of how a VNA would operate in practice.* Capability of accessing to the data on a commercial VNA test instrument.* device simulator equipped with 35 device builders from which an unlimited number of devices can be defined and studied.
* circuit simulator that can be used to build circuits and study their properties. Software VNA and Microwave Network Design and Characterisation is a practical guide for senior undergraduate and MSc students as well as practising engineers and researchers in the field of microwave engineering.
Zhipeng Wu is currently a Professor in the Microwave and Communications Group in the School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering at the University of Manchester. His research interests are in the field of antennas and propagation for wireless and mobile communications, tomographic systems and sensors, and microwave engineering, and he has taught many courses on these topics including Masters courses in microwave measurements and communication systems, and senior undergraduate courses in microwave components and systems and communication principles. He has been at the university since 1998, and was elevated, in 2005 to become a Senior Member of the IEEE and Fellow of the IEE. He has been invited to be a program committee member of a number of international conferences, and will the Chair of the Technical Program Committee for the International Workshop on Antenna Technology in 2007. He has co-authored the book Radiowave Propagation Over Ground (Kluwer, 1993) and the accompanying software to this book, and also the vector network analyser (VNA) software for the proposed book. Along with this, he has written a chapter in the Wiley Encyclopedia of RF and Microwave Engineering (Wiley, 2005), and the book Dielectric Resonator Antennas (Research Studies Press, 2003), and authored over 120 conference and journal publications.
Foreword Preface Chapter 1. Introduction to Network Analysis of Microwave Circuits 1.1 One-Port Network 1.1.1 Total Voltage and Current Analysis 1.1.2 Transmission-Reflection Analysis 126.96.36.199 Voltage and Current 188.8.131.52 Reflection Coefficient 184.108.40.206 Power 220.127.116.11 Introduction of a1 and b1 18.104.22.168 Z in Terms of G 1.1.3 Smith Chart 22.214.171.124 Impedance Chart 126.96.36.199 Admittance Chart 1.1.4 Terminated Transmission Line 1.2 Two-Port Network 1.2.1 Total Quantity Network Parameters 1.2.2 Determination of Z, Y and ABCD Parameters 1.2.3 Properties of Z, Y and ABCD Parameters 1.2.4 Scattering Parameters 1.2.5 Determination of S-parameters 1.2.6 Relation between a and b and Total Voltages and Currents 1.2.7 Power in Terms of a and b 1.2.8 Signal Flow Chart 1.2.9 Properties of S-parameters 1.2.10 Power Flow in a Terminated Two-Port Network 1.3 Conversions between Z, Y and ABCD and S-parameters 1.4 Single Impedance Two-port Network 1.4.1 S-parameters for Single Series Impedance 1.4.2 S-parameters for Single Shunt Impedance 1.4.3 Two-Port Chart 188.8.131.52 Single Series Impedance Network 184.108.40.206 Single Shunt Impedance Network 220.127.116.11 Scaling Property 1.4.4 Applications of the Two-Port Chart 18.104.22.168 Identification of Pure Resonance 22.214.171.124 Q-factor Measurements 126.96.36.199 Resonance with Power-Dependent Losses 188.8.131.52 Impedance or Admittance Measurement Using the Two-Port Chart 1.5 S-parameters of Common One- and Two-Port Networks 1.6 Connected Two-Port Networks 1.6.1 T-Junction 1.6.2 Cascaded Two-Port Networks 1.6.3 Two-Port Networks in Series and Parallel Connections 1.7 Scattering Matrix of Microwave Circuits Composed of Multi-port Devices 1.7.1 S-parameters of a Multi-port Device 1.7.2 S-parameters of a Microwave Circuit Chapter 2. Introduction to Software VNA 2.1 How to Install 2.2 The Software VNA 2.3 STIMULUS Functions 2.4 PARAMETER Functions 2.5 FORMAT Functions 2.6 RESPONSE Functions 2.7 MENU Block 2.8 Summary of Unlabelled-key Functions 2.9 Preset 2.10 Device Under Test (DUT) 2.11 Circuit Simulator 2.12 Circuit Simulation Procedures and Example Chapter 3. Device Builders and Models 3.1 Lossless Transmission Line 3.2 One- and Two-Port Standards 3.3 Discrete RLC Components: One-Port Impedance Load 3.4 Discrete RLC Components: Two-Port Series Impedance 3.5 Discrete RLC Components: Two-Port Shunt Admittance 3.6 General Transmission Line 3.7 Transmission Line Components: Two-Port Serial Transmission Line Stub 3.8 Transmission Line Components: Two-Port Parallel Transmission Line Stub 3.9 Ideal Two-Port Components: Attenuator/Gain Block 3.10 Ideal Two-Port Components: 1:N and N:1 Transformer 3.11 Ideal Two-Port Components: Isolator 3.12 Ideal Two-Port Components: Gyrator 3.13 Ideal Two-Port Components: Circulator 3.14 Physical Transmission Lines: Coaxial Line 3.15 Physical Transmission Lines: Microstrip Line 3.16 Physical Transmission Lines: Stripline 3.17 Physical Transmission Lines: Coplanar Waveguide 3.18 Physical Transmission Lines: Coplanar Strips 3.19 Physical Line Discontinuities: Coaxial Line Discontinuities 3.19.1 Step Discontinuity 3.19.2 Gap Discontinuity 3.19.3 Open-End Discontinuity 3.20 Physical Line Discontinuities: Microstrip Line Discontinuities 3.20.1 Step Discontinuity 3.20.2 Gap Discontinuity 3.20.3 Bend Discontinuity 3.20.4 Slit Discontinuity 3.20.5 Open-End Discontinuity 3.21 Physical Line Discontinuities: Stripline Discontinuities 3.21.1 Step Discontinuity 3.21.2 Gap Discontinuity 3.21.3 Bend Discontinuity 3.21.4 Open-End Discontinuity 3.22 General Coupled Lines: Four-Port Coupled Lines 3.23 General Coupled Lines: Two-Port Coupled Lines 3.24 Physical Coupled Lines: Four-Port Coupled Microstrip Lines 3.25 Physical Coupled Lines: Two-Port Coupled Microstrip Lines 3.26 Lumped Elements: Inductors 3.26.1 Circular Coil 3.26.2 Circular Spiral 3.26.3 Single Turn Inductor 3.27 Lumped Elements: Capacitors 3.27.1 Thin Film Capacitor 3.27.2 Interdigital Capacitor 3.28 Lumped Elements: Resistor 3.29 Active Devices 3.30 Antennas: Dipole Antenna 3.31 Antennas: Resonant Antenna 3.32 Antennas: Transmission between Dipole Antennas 3.33 Antennas: Transmission between Resonant Antennas 3.34 User Defined S-Parameters: One-Port Device 3.35 User Defined S-Parameters: Two-Port Device Chapter 4: Design of Microwave Circuits 4.1 Impedance Matching 4.1.1 Impedance Matching Using a Discreet Element 4.1.2 Single Stub Matching 4.1.3 Double Stub Matching 4.2 Impedance Transformers 4.2.1 Quarter Wave Transformer 4.2.2 Chebyshev Multisection Matching Transformer 4.2.3 Corporate Feeds 4.3 Microwave Resonators 4.3.1 One-Port Directly Connected RLC Resonant Circuits 4.3.2 Two-Port Directly Connected RLC Resonant Circuits 4.3.3 One-Port Coupled Resonators 4.3.4 Two-Port Coupled Resonators 4.3.5 Transmission Line Resonators 4.3.6 Coupled Line Resonators 4.4 Power Dividers. 4.4.1 The 3dB Wilkinson Power Divider 4.4.2 The Wilkinson Power Divider with Unequal Splits 4.4.3 Alternative Design of Power Divider with Unequal Splits 4.4.4 Cohn's Cascaded Power Divider 4.5 Couplers 4.5.1 Two-Stub Branch Line Coupler 4.5.2 Coupler with Flat Coupling Response 4.5.3 Three-Stub Branch Line Coupler 4.5.4 Coupled Line Couplers 4.6 Hybrid Rings 4.6.1 Hybrid Ring Coupler 4.6.2 Rat-race Hybrid 4.6.3 Wideband Rat-Race Hybrid 4.6.4 Modified Hybrid Ring 4.6.5 Modified Hybrid Ring With Improved Bandwidth 4.7 Phase Shifters 4.7.1 Transmission line phase shifter 4.7.2 LC phase shifters 4.8 Filters 4.8.1 Maximally Flat Response 4.8.2 Chebyshev Response 4.8.3. Maximally Flat Lowpass Filters with w1=1 4.8.4. Chebyshev Lowpass Filters with w1=1 4.8.5 Filter Transformations 4.8.6 Step Impedance Lowpass Filters 4.8.7 Bandpass and Bandstop Filters Using Resonators 4.8.8 Bandpass Filters Using l/4 Connecting Lines and Short-Circuited Stubs 4.8.9 Coupled Line Bandpass Filters 4.8.10 End-Coupled Resonator Filters 4.9 Amplifier Design 4.9.1 Maximum Gain Amplifier Design 4.9.2 Broadband Amplifier Design 4.9.3 High Frequency Small Signal FET Circuit Model 4.9.4 Negative Feedback Amplifier Design Chapter 5: Simulation of Microwave Devices and Circuits 5.1 Transmission Lines 5.1.1 Terminated Transmission Line 5.1.2 Two-port Transmission Line 5.1.3 Short-Circuited Transmission Line Stub 5.1.4 Open-Circuited Transmission Line Stub 5.1.5 Periodic Transmission Line Structures 5.2 Impedance Matching 5.2.1 Matching of a Half-Wavelength Dipole Antenna Using a Discreet Element 5.2.2 Single Stub Matching of a Half-Wavelength Dipole Antenna 5.3 Impedance Transformers 5.3.1 Quarter-wave Impedance Transformer 5.3.2 Chebyshev Multi-Section Impedance Transformer 5.3.3 Corporate Feeds 5.3.4 Corporate Feeds Realised Using Microstrip Lines 5.3.5 Kuroda's Identities 5.4 Resonators 5.4.1 One-Port RLC Series Resonant Circuit 5.4.2 Two-Port RLC Series Resonant Circuit 5.4.3 Two-Port Coupled Resonant Circuit 5.4.4 Two-Port Coupled Microstrip Line Resonator 5.4.5 Two-Port Coupled Microstrip Coupled Line Resonator 5.4.6 Two-Port Symmetrically Coupled Ring Resonator 5.4.7 Two-Port Asymmetrically Coupled Ring Resonator 5.5 Power Dividers 5.5.1 3dB Wilkinson Power Divider 5.5.2 Microstrip 3dB Wilkinson Power Divider 5.5.3 Cohn's Cascaded 3dB Power Divider 5.6 Couplers 5.6.1 Two-Stub Branch Line Coupler 5.6.2 Microstrip Two-Stub Branch Line Coupler 5.6.3 Three-Stub Branch Line Coupler 5.6.4 Coupled Line Coupler 5.6.5 Microstrip Coupled Line Coupler 5.6.6 Rat-Race Hybrid Ring Coupler 5.6.7 March's Wideband Rat-Race Hybrid Ring Coupler 5.7 Filters 5.7.1 Maximally Flat Discrete Element Low Pass Filter 5.7.2 Equal Ripple Discrete Element Low Pass Filter 5.7.3 Equal Ripple Discrete Element Bandpass Filter 5.7.4 Step Impedance Lowpass Filter 5.7.5 Bandpass Filter Using Quarter-wave Resonators 5.7.6 Bandpass Filter Using Quarter-wave Connecting Lines and Short-Circuited Stubs 5.7.7 Microstrip Coupled Line Filter 5.7.8 End-Coupled Microstrip Resonator Filter 5.8 Amplifier Design 5.8.1 Maximum Gain Amplifier 5.8.2 Balanced Amplifier 5.9 Wireless Transmission Systems 5.9.1 Transmission between with Two Dipoles with Matching Circuits 5.9.2 Transmission between with Two Dipoles with an Attenuator References Index