Designed for undergraduate and graduate students, this book covers important soil physical properties, critical physical processes involving energy and mass transport, movement and retention of water and solutes through soil profile, soil temperature regimes and aeration, and plant-water relations. It includes new concepts and numerical examples for an in depth understanding of these principles. The book provides readers with clear coverage of how and why water and solute flow through the soil and details how various factors influence the flow. It includes guidance on the use of the existing public domain computer models.
Introduction to Soil Physics Importance of Soil Physics Interactions of Soil Physics with Other Disciplines Soil Physics, Soil and Environmental Quality, and Quality of Life Soil Physics and Climate Change Soil Physics Curriculum Problems References Units and Dimensions Introduction Definitions of Unit and Dimension Systems of Units Nondimensional Quantities Deriving Units of Physical Quantities Use of Units and Dimensions Unit Conversions Problems References Characteristics of Soils of the Vadose Zone Introduction Soil Formation Soil Profile Soil Texture Soil Separates Methods for Particle Size Measurement Particle Shapes Properties of Clay Particles Physical Properties of Soil K14069 C000.indb 5 7/17/2013 6:35:20 PMvi Contents3.10 Soil Structure Problems References Sampling Concepts and Designs Introduction Representative Elementary Volume Sample Size Sampling Designs Practical Aspects of Soil Sampling Problems References Spatial Variability of Vadose Zone Properties Introduction Sources of Variability Scale of Variability Statistical Evaluations Influence of Sample Support Influence of Measurement Device Influence of Land Use Statistical Analysis Geostatistical Analysis Semivariogram Functions Problems References Fundamentals of Hydrology Introduction Hydrologic Cycle Components of Hydrologic Cycle Water Balance Rainfall Runoff Relationships References Properties of Water Introduction Properties of Water Forces on Water Molecules Contact Angle Capillarity Empirical Approach Importance of Capillarity Problems References Water in the Vadose Zone Introduction Soil-Water Content Soil-Water Content Measurement Methods Direct Methods Indirect Methods Energy State of Soil Water Definitions and Components of Soil-Water Potential Soil-Water Potential Measurement Devices Total Soil-Water Potential under Different Conditions Soil-Water Retention Soil-Water Retention Models Hysteresis Phenomenon Problems References Flow through the Vadose Zone Introduction Laws Governing Flow through Saturated Porous Media Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity Permeability Laws Governing Flow through Unsaturated Porous Media Unsaturated Hydraulic Conductivity Measurement Soil Water Diffusivity Measurement Flow through Layered System Models for Simulating Flow through Soil System References Water Infiltration into the Vadose Zone Introduction Process of Infiltration Measurement of Infiltration Factors Affecting Infiltration Rate 1Infiltration Models 1Water Redistribution Problems References Energy Flow through the Vadose Zone Introduction Energy Balance of Soil Factors Affecting Energy Balance Heat Flow Processes Heat Flux through Soil Heat Conservation Equation 1Measurement of Thermal Properties Soil Temperature Effects of Soil Temperature Soil Temperature Variations Mathematical Representation Management of Soil Temperature Problems References Evaporation from Soil Introduction Evaporation from Different Water Bodies Evaporation Processes Stages of Evaporation Steady-State Evaporation Transient-State Evaporation Soil Water Redistribution during Evaporation Vapor Flow through Soil Control of Evaporation Transpiration Measurement of Evapotranspiration Problems References Root Water Uptake Introduction Root Water Uptake Models Microscopic Root Water Uptake Model Macroscopic Type I Root Water Uptake Model Macroscopic Type II Root Water Uptake Model References Airflow through the Vadose Zone Introduction Soil Gas Content Factors Affecting Soil Air Composition Air Flow through Soil Air Flow Mechanisms through Soil Air-Filled Porosity Measurement through Soil Air Permeability Problems References Chemical Transport through the Vadose Zone Introduction Types of Solutes Related Terminology Pore Water Velocity Solute Conservation Equation Solute Transport Processes Fick's Law Solute Movement Solute Breakthrough Curve Interpretations from Breakthrough Curves Equilibrium Convective Dispersion Equation Solute Transport Equation under Physical Nonequilibrium Solute Transport Equation under Chemical Nonequilibrium Effect of Pore Water Velocity on Solute Transport Parameters Parameter Estimation Transport of Reactive Solutes Problems References Modeling Flow through the Vadose Zone Using HYDRUS-1DModel Introduction Installation of the HYDRUS-1D HYDRUS-1D Tutorial References Flow through the Vadose Zone Using RZWQM Introduction Installation of the RZWQM2 Model RZWQM2 Tutorial Working with the RZWQM2 Project Working with the RZWQM2 Scenario Scenario Comparisons References Index