Solar Energy is an authoritative reference on the design of solar energy systems in building projects, with applications, operating principles, and simple tools for the construction, engineering, and design professional. The book simplifies the solar design and engineering process, providing sample documentation and special tools that provide all the information needed for the complete design of a solar energy system for buildings to enable mainstream MEP and design firms, and not just solar energy specialists, to meet the growing demand for solar energy systems in building projects.
ANDY WALKER, PhD, is Principal Engineer at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado. Dr. Walker conducts engineering and economic analysis of energy efficiency and renewable energy projects in government facilities, such as national parks and military bases, and corporate facilities, such as Frito-Lay North America and Anheuser-Busch. He has also taught energy-related classes in the mechanical and architectural engineering departments at the University of Colorado Boulder, the Colorado School of Mines, and Metropolitan State University of Denver.
Foreword vii Preface ix Acknowledgments xi CHAPTER 1 Delivering Solar Energy Projects 1 History and Current Use of Solar Energy 1 Advantages of Solar Energy 2 Solar Energy Project Delivery Process 6 Integration of Solar Energy into the Existing Infrastructure 17 CHAPTER 2 The Solar Energy Resource 27 Structure of the Sun 27 Nuclear Fusion: The Source of the Sun s Power 28 The Spectral Nature of Solar Radiation 28 Position of the Sun in the Sky 30 Direct Beam, Diffuse, and Global Solar Insolation in the Plane of a Solar Collector Surface 34 Incident Angle of Direct Beam Sun on a Surface 35 The Effect of Shade 42 Solar Resource Measurement 43 Solar Resource Maps and Data 45 Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) Weather Data 46 Forecasting the Solar Resource Hours or Days into the Future 46 Diagnosis of Solar Energy System Performance Using Solar Resource Data 47 Computer Tools for Analysis of Solar Position and Solar Resources 47 Standards Related to Solar Resource Assessment 49 CHAPTER 3 Photovoltaics (PV, Solar Electricity) 51 Photovoltaic Cells and Modules 54 Voltage and Current Characteristics of PV Devices (the i-v curve) 56 Open-Circuit Voltage and Operating Voltage of a PV Cell 56 Dependence of Voltage and Current on Temperature 60 Different Types of Photovoltaic Devices 63 Standard Ratings and Performance Indicators for PV Modules 69 Energy Balance for a PV Module, Nominal Operating cell Temperature (NOCT) 72 Power Output of a PV Module 73 Photovoltaic System Schematic Design 74 Photovoltaic System Components 78 Estimating the Cost of a Photovoltaic System 88 Estimating Electric Use and Solar Fraction 92 Recommended Applications 94 Simple Hand Calculation of Photovoltaic System Size and Energy Delivery 95 Estimating the Energy Cost Savings of a Photovoltaic (Solar Electric) System 97 Computer Tools for Analysis of Photovoltaic Systems 106 Codes and Standards for Photovoltaic Modules and Systems 112 Operation and Maintenance of Photovoltaic Systems 114 Case Studies of Photovoltaic System Installations 115 Example: Procurement Specifications for Grid-Tied Solar Electric (Photovoltaic) System 118 CHAPTER 4 Solar Water Heating 128 Different Types of Water-Heating Solar Collectors 131 Solar Water Heating System Schematic Design 143 Solar Water Heating System Components 151 Estimating the Cost of a Solar Water Heating System 165 Estimating Building Hot Water Use and Solar Fraction 169 Recommended Applications 171 Simple Hand Calculation of Solar Water Heating System Size and Energy Delivery 172 System Thermodynamics and Computer Tools for Analysis of Solar Water Heating Systems 179 Codes and Standards for Solar Water Heaters 185 Operation and Maintenance of Solar Water Heating Systems 187 Case Studies of Solar Water Heating System Installations 188 Example: Procurement Specifications for a Solar Water Heating System 191 CHAPTER 5 Solar Ventilation Air Preheating 200 Operating Principle of the Transpired Air-Heating Solar Collector 202 Solar Ventilation Air Preheat System Schematic 210 Solar Ventilation Air Preheat System Components 210 Design Considerations 214 Recommended Applications 216 Estimating the Cost of a Solar Ventilation Air Preheat System 218 Simple Hand Calculations for Size and Performance of a Solar Ventilation Air Heating System 220 Computer Tools for Analysis of Solar Ventilation Preheat Systems 228 Codes and Standards related to Solar Ventilation Air Preheating 230 Maintenance of Solar Ventilation Air Preheating Systems 230 Case Studies of Solar Ventilation Air Preheating System Installations 231 Example: Procurement Specifications for Solar Ventilation Preheat System 232 CHAPTER 6 Solar Space Heating and Cooling 237 Site Issues 238 Building Heat Loss 238 Solar Heat Gain through Windows and Opaque Surfaces 239 Materials and Building Components for Passive Solar Space Heating Systems 240 Thermal Storage 244 Heat Distribution Systems 247 Solar Space Heating (Passive or Active) System Schematic Design 248 Estimating the Cost of a Solar Space Heating System 254 Estimating Energy Use and Solar Fraction 255 Calculation of Solar Space Heating System Sizing and Energy Delivery 255 Computer Tools for Analysis of Passive Solar Systems 267 Codes and Standards Related to Passive Solar Heating 272 Operation and Maintenance of Passive Solar Heating Systems 273 Case Studies of Passive Solar Space Heating Systems 273 Example: Procurement Specifications for Passive Solar Thermal Storage Wall 274 CHAPTER 7 Case Studies of Solar Buildings 277 Case Study: Residence in Golden, Colorado 277 Case Study: Red Rock Canyon Visitor Center, Las Vegas, Nevada 281 Case Study: Research Support Facility (RSF) Office Building, Golden, Colorado 285 Appendix A: Nomenclature 291 Appendix B: Unit Conversion Factors 294 Index 295