This book contains most of the invited papers and contributions pre- sented at the Symposium/Workshop on Solar-Terrestrial Influences on Weather and Climate which was held at The Ohio State University on 24-28 July 1978. The authors and publisher have made a special effort for rapid publi- cation. The length of the individual papers in this book were delib- erately limited by the editors. Direct financial support for the Symposium/Workshop was provided by NASA. Palo Alto Billy M. McCormac Columbus Thomas A. Seliga January 1979 xiii SYMPOSIUH/WORKSHOP CONCLUSIONS Billy M. McCormac Department 52-l0/B202 Lockheed Palo Alto Research Laboratory 3251 Hanover Street Palo Alto, CA 94304 USA Thomas A. Seliga Atmospheric Sciences Program The Ohio State University 2015 Neil Avenue Columbus, OH 43210 USA A. INTRODUCTION The Symposium/Workshop on Solar-Terrestrial Influences on Weather and Climate was held at The Ohio State University on 24-28 July 1978. Its purpose was to provide an international forum for the presentation and discussion of recent research results and ideas regarding the question whether variations in solar outputs affect terrestrial weather and cli- mate and, if so, to what extent and through what mechanisms. The Sym- posium focused on the results of previous studies and consisted of both invited and contributed papers. The Workshop, on the other hand, built upon these deliberations to develop ideas and directions for future research. Over one hundred persons from eight countries attended the Symposium/ Workshop.
Symposium/Workshop Conclusions.- Introductory Review of Solar-Terrestrial Weather and Climate Relationships.- The Enigma of Drought - A Challenge for Terrestrial and Extra-Terrestrial Research.- Solar Input to the Terrestrial System.- Analysis of Regression Methods for Solar Activity Forecasting.- Variations in the Solar Constant Caused by Changes in the Active Features on the Sun.- The Variability and Absolute Magnitude of Solar Spectral Irradiance.- Empirical Model of the Earth's Response to Astronomical Variations of Insolation.- Solar Wind-Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Coupling.- A Geomagnetic Activity Recurrence Index.- Effects of Solar Flares on the Atmospheric Circulation.- Energy Deposition in the Earth's Atmosphere due to Impact of Solar Activity-Generated Disturbances.- Evidence of a 22-year Rhythm of Drought in the Western United States Related to the Hale Solar Cycle since the 17th Century.- Available Potential Energy in the Middle Atmosphere as it Relates to the Sun-weather Effect.- Influence of the Solar Magnetic Field on Tropospheric Circulation.- An Experimental Search for Causal Mechanisms in Sun/Weather-Climatic Relationships.- The Statistical Significance of Data from Superposed Epoch Analyses.- Solar Cycles and the Weather: Successful Experiments in Autosuggestion?.- Planetary Motion, Sunspots and Climate.- Use of Difference Equation Methods for Predicting Sunspot Numbers.- Atmospheric Electricity and the Sun-Weather Problem.- Electrical Coupling Between the Upper and Lower Atmosphere.- Influences of Solar Activity on the Electric Potential Between the Ionosphere and the Earth.- Thunderstorm Frequency and Solar Sector Boundaries.- The Role of Atmospheric Electricity in Sun-Weather Relationships.- Possible Mechanisms of Solar Activity - Weather Effects Involving Planetary Waves.- Planetary Waves at the 500-MBAR Level in the Northern Hemisphere and Their Connection to the Solar Rotation.- The Role of Gravity Waves in Solar-Terrestrial Atmosphere Coupling and Severe Storm Detection.- Influences of Solar Activity on the Exchange Intensity Between Stratosphere and Troposphere.- Solar Influence on North Atlantic Mean Sea Level Pressure.- Some Aspects of Stratospheric Chemical Response to Solar Particle Precipitations: Potential Roles of N2 (A3?) and Ion-Chemistry.- Spectral Analysis of Long-Interval Temperature Data.- Preliminary Report of Changes in Tropopause Height Compared to Variations in Solar Behavior.- The Stratospheric Mechanism of Solar and Anthropogenic Influences on Climate.- High Latitudes Anticyclogenesis and Enhanced Atmospheric Latent Heat Transfer Processes.- The Potential of the Chatanika Radar in Investigating Possible Solar/Atmosphere Coupling.- List of Participants.