Hikers in the mountains of the Far West have long known about mysterious carvings found on aspen trees but few have researched their intent or significance. Historian J. Mallea-Olaetxe has spent more than two decades recording and studying these arboglyphs, which were largely the work of Basque sheepherders.The carvings - names, dates, phrases in several languages, even human and animal figures - provide a unique and important record of the lives of the solitary Basque sheepherders. For the first time, these men, who contributed so much to the development of the region, speak for themselves about their experiences.Author Mallea-Olaetxe analyzes the content of thousands of arboglphs in the mountains of Nevada and California. In addition, he has examined artifacts such as sheep camps and bread ovens, conducted extensive interviews with former herders and sheep company personnel, and undertaken research in immigration and other records. The result is a highly original work of history. Enhanced by 94 photographs and line drawings, this book is essential reading for scholars and anyone interested in the Basque experience.