This special issue is dedicated to the memory of Arthur L. Benton, Ph.D. who was a pioneer in clinical and experimental neuropsychology during the latter half of the 20th century. Dr. Benton's scholarly contributions also impacted neurology, including developmental and adult disorders. The breadth of Dr. Benton's research, the global dissemination of his work, and his legacy are reflected by this special issue which encompasses developmental neuropsychology, executive functions of prefrontal cortex, stroke, aging, and dementia. Hemispheric asymmetry, which attracted Dr. Benton's interest throughout much of his career, is also represented in this special issue. The Editors are indebted to the authors of the papers in this special issue, who took much time from busy schedules to put together a set of outstanding empirical contributions, and to Abigail Sivan, Ph.D., Dr. Benton's daughter, for writing the Introduction.