'State-Owned Banks in the Transition: Origins, Evolution, and Policy Responses' reviews the experience with state banking over the last decade in the transition economies of Europe and Central Asia. State ownership of banking systems has undermined economic reform efforts and has distorted emerging markets. This study compares various approaches to reform and calls attention to the significant costs associated with continued state ownership. It concludes with lessons from experience and recommendations for policymakers on approaches to reducing state ownership of banks in the region. The findings indicate that restructuring of state banks has proven time consuming and costly, and governments are better off moving swiftly to privatize or liquidate their remaining state banks rather than attempting to rehabilitate them. This report includes seven case studies of individual state banks that have been reformed or privatized over the past decade. The case studies highlight the challenges of implementing various reform measures and illustrate how such challenges have been addressed in difficult economic and political contexts.