Lightness, efficiency, durability and economic as well as ecological viability are key attributes required from materials today. In the transport industry, the performance needs are felt exceptionally strongly. This handbook and ready reference covers the use of structural materials throughout this industry, particularly for the road, air and rail sectors. A strong focus is placed on the latest developments in materials engineering. The authors present new insights and trends, providing firsthand information from the perspective of universities, Fraunhofer and independent research institutes, aerospace and automotive companies and suppliers. Arranged into parts to aid the readers in finding the information relevant to their needs: * Metals * Polymers * Composites * Cellular Materials * Modeling and Simulation * Higher Level Trends
Matthias Busse holds the chair for near net shape manufacturing technology at the University of Bremen, Germany, at the faculty of production engineering. In 2003 he became director of the Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Technology and Applied Materials Research (Fraunhofer IFAM). After his PhD he started his career at Volkswagen where he was promoted to head of production research in 2001. He represents the University of Bremen's newly founded Scientific Centre ISIS as speaker of the board of directors. Axel S. Herrmann has taken over the post of director at the Faserinstitut Bremen (FIBRE) e.V. in 2001. After his PhD he became head of the composite structures demonstration centre at DFVLR (now DLR) and was was responsible for the affiliated department of fibre-reinforced composite technologies until he moved to Bremen. Axel S. Hermann has taken a leading role in establishing the CFK Valley Network of Excellence in Stade, Germany. In addition he is general manager of the Composite Technology Centre (CTC) GmbH Stade. Kambiz Kayvantash holds the Chair for Automotive Technology at Cranfield University, UK, and is currently Head of the Centre for Automotive Technology and Director of the Cranfield Impact Centre that contributes to the aeronautic and motor sport industry. He has more than 25 years professional and consulting experience in automotive safety, materials modeling and software applications. Kambiz Kayvantash is the Chairman of the Simbio-M conference, dedicated to biomechanics, biomaterial, biomedicine and biomolecular research. Dirk Lehmhus received his mechanical engineering diploma based on studies dedicated to galvanic corrosion of magnesium alloys at Volkswagen's central laboratory. He joined Fraunhofer IFAM in 1998 and obtained a PhD in production technology at the University of Bremen for studies on optimization of aluminium foam production processes and properties. In May 2009, he changed to the University of Bremen as managing director of the ISIS dedicated to the development of sensor materials and sensor-equipped structures.
PREFACE PART I: Metals STEEL AND IRON BASED ALLOYS Introduction Sheet Steels Forging Steels Casting Steel ALUMINUM AND ALUMINUM ALLOYS Introduction Wrought Alloys and Associated Processes Casting Alloys and Associated Processes Secondary Processes Case Studies Summary and Outlook Further Reading MAGNESIUM AND MAGNESIUM ALLOYS Introduction Wrought Alloys and Associated Processes Cast Alloys and Associated Processes Other Aspects Case Studies Summary and Outlook Further Reading TITANIUM AND TITANIUM ALLOYS Introduction Fundamental Aspects Applications in Automobiles, Aerospace, and ShipBuilding Future Trends Further Reading PART II: Polymers THERMOPLASTICS Introduction Fundamentals and Recent Advancements in Thermoplastics Processing and Evolution of Structure?Basics and Recent Developments Properties Summary THERMOSETS Introduction Advanced Thermosets and Associated Processes Thermosets for Coatings and Adhesives Case Studies?Thermoset Composites Summary and Outlook ELASTOMERS Introduction Classification of Elastomers Natural Rubber Synthetic Rubbers Thermoplastic Elastomers Fluorine-Containing TPEs Bio-Based TPEs Conclusions PART III: Composites POLYMER MATRIX COMPOSITES Introduction Further Reading METAL MATRIX COMPOSITES Introduction Relevant MMC Systems Case Studies Summary and Outlook Further Reading POLYMER NANOCOMPOSITES Introduction Fiber-Reinforced Nanocomposites Sandwich Structures High-Temperature Fiber-Reinforced Nanocomposites Age and Durability Performance Concluding Remarks PART IV: Cellular Materials POLYMERIC FOAMS Introduction Blowing Agents for Polymer Foams Thermoplastic Foams: Conventional Processing Technologies Thermoplastic Foams: New Trends, Materials and Technologies Thermosets Foams: Conventional Processing Technologies Thermosets Foams: New Trends, Materials and Technologies Nanocomposite Foams Case Studies Summary and Outlook Further Reading METAL FOAMS Introduction Foams Produced by Means of Melt Technologies Foams Produced by Means of Powder Metallurgy (P/M) Porous Structures for Structural Applications Produced from Wires and Other Half-Finished Parts Case Studies Summary and Outlook Further Reading PART V: Modeling and Simulation ADVANCED SIMULATION AND OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUES FOR COMPOSITES Introduction Multiphysics Homogenization Analysis Probabilistic Homogenization Approaches Optimization Summary and Conclusions AN ARTIFICIAL-INTELLIGENCE-BASED APPROACH FOR GENERALIZED MATERIAL MODELING Introduction Strain Measures Stress Measures Example AB INITIO GUIDED DESIGN OF MATERIALS Introduction Top-Down and Bottom-Up Multiscale Modeling Strategies Ab Initio Based Multiscale Modeling of Materials Modeling of Ultralightweight Mg?Li Alloys Ternary bcc MgLi?X Alloys Summary and Outlook Further Reading PART VI: Higher Level Trends HYBRID DESIGN APPROACHES Introduction Motivation From Monomaterial to Hybrid Multi-Material Design Approach in the Automotive Sector ULSAB AVC Project/FSV Future Steel Vehicle Project S-in Motion ? Steel BiW Project Multi-Material Hybrid Design Approach Optimum Multi-Material Solutions: The Reason for Hybrid Design Approach SuperLIGHT-Car Project Hybrid Solutions: Overview of Current Automotive Production Trends in Automotive Materials and Structural Design Hybrid Solutions in Aircraft, Rail, and Ship Market General Aspects on Joining Technologies for Multi-Material Mix Conclusion SENSORIAL MATERIALS Introduction Components Case Study Further Reading ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING APPROACHES Introduction Metal Materials Nonmetal Materials Secondary Processes Case Studies Summary and Outlook Further Reading INDEX