Sugarcane-Based Biofuels and Bioproducts

Sugarcane-Based Biofuels and Bioproducts

By: Ian O'Hara (editor), Sagadevan Mundree (editor)Hardback

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Description

Sugarcane has garnered much interest for its potential as a viable renewable energy crop. While the use of sugar juice for ethanol production has been in practice for years, a new focus on using the fibrous co-product known as bagasse for producing renewable fuels and bio-based chemicals is growing in interest. The success of these efforts, and the development of new varieties of energy canes, could greatly increase the use of sugarcane and sugarcane biomass for fuels while enhancing industry sustainability and competitiveness. Sugarcane-Based Biofuels and Bioproducts examines the development of a suite of established and developing biofuels and other renewable products derived from sugarcane and sugarcane-based co-products, such as bagasse. Chapters provide broad-ranging coverage of sugarcane biology, biotechnological advances, and breakthroughs in production and processing techniques. This text brings together essential information regarding the development and utilization of new fuels and bioproducts derived from sugarcane. Authored by experts in the field, Sugarc ane-Based Biofuels and Bioproducts is an invaluable resource for researchers studying biofuels, sugarcane, and plant biotechnology as well as sugar and biofuels industry personnel.

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About Author

Ian O'Hara is Associate Professor of Process Engineering with the Centre for Tropical Crops and Biocommodities at Queensland University of Technology in Brisbane, Australia Sagadevan Mundree is Professor and Director of the Centre for Tropical Crops and Biocommodities at Queensland University of Technology in Brisbane, Australia

Contents

Preface, xiii List of contributors, xv Part I Sugarcane for biofuels and bioproducts 1 The sugarcane industry, biofuel, and bioproduct perspectives, 3 Ian M. O Hara 1.1 Sugarcane a global bioindustrial crop, 3 1.2 The global sugarcane industry, 5 1.2.1 Sugarcane, 5 1.2.2 Sugarcane harvesting and transport, 6 1.2.3 The raw sugar production process, 7 1.2.4 The refined sugar production process, 9 1.2.5 The sugar market, 11 1.3 Why biofuels and bioproducts?, 11 1.3.1 The search for new revenue, 11 1.3.2 Sugar, ethanol, and cogeneration, 12 1.3.3 Fiber-based biofuels and bioproducts, 13 1.3.4 Climate change and renewable products, 13 1.3.5 New industries for sustainable regional communities, 14 1.4 Sugarcane biorefinery perspectives, 14 1.4.1 The sugarcane biorefinery, 14 1.4.2 The sustainability imperative, 17 1.4.3 Future developments in biotechnology for sugarcane biorefineries, 18 1.5 Concluding remarks, 19 References, 20 2 Sugarcane biotechnology: tapping unlimited potential, 23 Sudipta S. Das Bhowmik, Anthony K. Brinin, Brett Williams and Sagadevan G. Mundree 2.1 Introduction, 23 2.2 History of sugarcane, sugarcane genetics, wild varieties, 24 2.3 Uses of sugarcane, 25 2.3.1 Food and beverages, 25 2.3.2 Biofuels and bioenergy, 26 2.3.3 Fibers and textiles, 26 2.3.4 Value-added products, 26 2.4 Sugarcane biotechnology, 26 2.4.1 Limitations of sugarcane biotechnology, 29 2.5 Improvement of sugarcane breeding versus genetic modification through biotechnology, 29 2.6 Genetic modification of sugarcane, 30 2.7 Paucity of high-quality promoters, 32 2.8 Opportunities for GM-improved sugarcane, 32 2.9 Improved stress tolerance and disease resistance, 35 2.9.1 Stress tolerance, 35 2.9.2 Drought, 35 2.9.3 Salinity, 35 2.10 Naturally resilient plants as a novel genetic source for stress tolerance, 36 2.11 Disease resistance, 37 2.12 Industrial application of sugarcane, 39 2.13 How will climate change and expanded growing-region affect vulnerability to pathogens?, 40 2.14 Conclusion and perspectives, 41 References, 42 Part II Biofuels and bioproducts 3 Fermentation of sugarcane juice and molasses for ethanol production, 55 Cecilia Laluce, Guilherme R. Leite, Bruna Z. Zavitoski, Thamires T. Zamai and Ricardo Ventura 3.1 Introduction, 55 3.2 Natural microbial ecology, 56 3.2.1 Saccharomyces yeasts, 56 3.2.2 Wild yeasts, 58 3.2.3 Bacterial contaminants, 58 3.3 Yeast identification, 60 3.3.1 Identification of genetic and physiological phenotypes, 60 3.3.2 Molecular identification methods, 61 3.4 Cell surface and cell cell interactions, 62 3.4.1 Dissolved air flotation, 62 3.4.2 Flocculation, 64 3.4.3 Biofilms, 65 3.5 Sugarcane juice and bagasse, 65 3.5.1 Harvesting of the sugarcane, 65 3.5.2 Reception and cleaning of sugarcane, 66 3.5.3 Juice extraction, 66 3.5.4 Juice clarification, 66 3.5.5 Juice concentration, 66 3.5.6 Quality of clarified juice, 67 3.6 Fermentation of juice and molasses, 67 3.6.1 Starters yeasts, 67 3.6.2 Raw materials used in fermentation, 67 3.6.3 The fermentation, 68 3.7 Cogeneration of energy from bagasse, 68 3.8 Bioreactors and processes, 69 3.8.1 Batch fermentation, 70 3.8.2 Fed-batch fermentation, 70 3.8.3 Multistage Stage Continuous Fermentation (MSCF) system, 72 3.9 Control of microbial infections, 73 3.10 Monitoring and controlling processes, 74 3.11 Concluding remarks and perspective, 76 Acknowledgments, 77 References, 77 4 Production of fermentable sugars from sugarcane bagasse, 87 Zhanying Zhang, Mark D. Harrison and Ian M. O Hara 4.1 Introduction, 87 4.2 Bioethanol from bagasse, 88 4.3 Overview of pretreatment technologies, 90 4.4 Pretreatment of bagasse, 91 4.4.1 Dilute acid pretreatment, 91 4.4.2 Alkaline pretreatment, 92 4.4.3 Liquid hot water pretreatment, 93 4.4.4 Organosolv pretreatment, 94 4.4.5 Ionic liquid pretreatment, 97 4.4.6 SO2- and CO2-associated pretreatments, 98 4.5 Enzymatic hydrolysis, 99 4.6 Fermentation, 100 4.7 Conclusions and future perspectives, 102 References, 103 5 Chemicals manufacture from fermentation of sugarcane products, 111 Karen T. Robins and Robert E. Speight 5.1 Introduction, 111 5.2 The suitability of sugarcane-derived feedstocks in industrial fermentation processes, 114 5.2.1 Competing current applications of sugarcane products, 115 5.2.2 Use of sugarcane products in fermentations, 117 5.3 Metabolism and industrial host strains, 121 5.3.1 Metabolism of sucrose, 121 5.3.2 Metabolism of lignocellulose-derived sugars, 124 5.3.3 Optimization of strains and metabolism, 126 5.4 Bioprocess considerations, 127 5.5 Sugarcane-derived chemical products, 130 5.6 Summary, 132 References, 133 6 Mathematical modeling of xylose production from hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse, 137 Ava Greenwood, Troy Farrell and Ian M. O Hara 6.1 Introduction, 137 6.2 Mathematical models of hemicellulose acid pretreatment, 139 6.2.1 Kinetic models of hemicellulose acid hydrolysis, 139 6.2.2 The Saeman kinetic model, 139 6.2.3 The biphasic model, 140 6.2.4 The polymer degradation equation, 143 6.2.5 Other mathematical considerations and models of hemicellulose acid hydrolysis, 146 6.3 A mathematical model of sugarcane bagasse dilute-acid hydrolysis, 150 6.4 Sensitivity analysis, 153 6.4.1 Experimental solids loadings and fitting the hard-to-hydrolyze parameter, 155 6.4.2 Hemicellulose chain length characteristics and the parameter fitting of ka and kb, 156 6.5 Conclusions, 159 References, 160 7 Hydrothermal liquefaction of lignin, 165 Kameron G. Dunn and Philip A. Hobson 7.1 Introduction, 165 7.2 A review of lignin alkaline hydrolysis research, 170 7.3 Hydrolysis in subcritical and supercritical water without an alkali base, 186 7.4 Solvolysis with hydrogen donor solvent formic acid, 188 7.5 Reported depolymerization pathways of lignin and lignin model compounds, 192 7.6 The solid residue product, 194 7.7 Summary strategies to increase yields of monophenols, 195 7.7.1 Reaction temperature, 200 7.7.2 Reaction pressure, 201 7.7.3 Reaction time, 201 7.7.4 Lignin loading, 202 7.7.5 Alkali molarity, 202 7.7.6 Monomer separation, 202 7.7.7 Lignin structure, 202 References, 203 8 Conversion of sugarcane carbohydrates into platform chemicals, 207 Darryn W. Rackemann, Zhanying Zhang and William O.S. Doherty 8.1 Introduction, 207 8.1.1 Bagasse, 208 8.1.2 Biorefining, 208 8.2 Platform chemicals, 210 8.2.1 Furans, 212 8.2.2 Furfural, 212 8.2.3 HMF, 214 8.3 Organic acids, 214 8.3.1 Levulinic acid, 214 8.3.2 Formic acid, 218 8.4 Value of potential hydrolysis products, 218 8.5 Current technology for manufacture of furans and levulinic acid, 220 8.6 Technology improvements, 222 8.7 Catalysts, 223 8.7.1 Homogeneous catalysts, 223 8.7.2 Heterogeneous catalysts, 224 8.7.3 Levulinic acid, 224 8.8 Solvolysis, 226 8.9 Other product chemicals, 228 8.9.1 Esters, 228 8.9.2 Ketals, 228 8.9.3 Chloromethylfurfural, 229 8.9.4 GVL, 229 8.10 Concluding remarks, 230 References, 231 9 Cogeneration of sugarcane bagasse for renewable energy production, 237 Anthony P. Mann 9.1 Introduction, 237 9.2 Background, 238 9.3 Sugar factory processes without large-scale cogeneration, 243 9.4 Sugar factory processes with large-scale cogeneration, 249 9.4.1 Reducing LP steam heating requirements, 249 9.4.2 Reducing boiler station losses, 251 9.4.3 Increasing power generation efficiency, 253 9.4.4 A sugar factory cogeneration steam cycle, 254 9.5 Conclusions, 256 References, 257 10 Pulp and paper production from sugarcane bagasse, 259 Thomas J. Rainey and Geoff Covey 10.1 Background, 259 10.2 History of bagasse in the pulp and paper industry, 260 10.3 Depithing, 260 10.3.1 The need for depithing, 260 10.3.2 Depithing operation, 262 10.3.3 Character of pith, depithed bagasse, and whole bagasse, 264 10.3.4 Combustion of pith, 264 10.4 Storage of bagasse for papermaking, 266 10.5 Chemical pulping and bleaching of bagasse, 268 10.5.1 Digestion, 268 10.5.2 Black liquor, 269 10.5.3 Bleaching, 270 10.6 Mechanical and chemi-mechanical pulping, 271 10.7 Papermaking, 272 10.7.1 Fiber morphology, 272 10.7.2 Suitability of bagasse for various paper grades, 273 10.7.3 Physical properties, 274 10.7.4 Effect of pith on paper production, 275 10.8 Alternate uses of bagasse pulp, 276 References, 277 11 Sugarcane-derived animal feed, 281 Mark D. Harrison 11.1 Introduction, 281 11.1.1 The anatomy of the sugarcane plant, 282 11.1.2 Sugarcane production, processing, and sugar refining, 282 11.1.3 Scope of the chapter, 284 11.2 Crop residues and processing products, 285 11.2.1 Whole sugarcane, 285 11.2.2 Tops and trash, 286 11.2.3 Bagasse, 288 11.2.4 Molasses, 288 11.2.5 Sugarcane juice, 290 11.3 Processing sugarcane residues to enhance their value in animal feed, 290 11.3.1 Ensilage/microbial conditioning, 291 11.3.2 Chemical conditioning, 293 11.3.3 Physical processing (baling, pelletization, depithing), 296 11.3.4 Pretreatment, 296 11.4 Conclusions, 300 References, 300 Part III Systems and sustainability 12 Integrated first- and second-generation processes for bioethanol production from sugarcane, 313 Marina O. de Souza Dias, Otavio Cavalett, Rubens M. Filho and Antonio Bonomi 12.1 Introduction, 313 12.2 Process descriptions, 315 12.2.1 First-generation ethanol production, 315 12.2.2 Second-generation ethanol production, 317 12.2.3 Cogeneration in integrated first- and second-generation ethanol production from sugarcane, 320 12.2.4 Some aspects of the process integration, 321 12.3 Economic aspects of first- and second-generation ethanol production, 323 12.4 Environmental aspects of first- and second-generation ethanol production, 325 12.5 Final remarks, 328 References, 328 13 Greenhouse gas abatement from sugarcane bioenergy, biofuels, and biomaterials, 333 Marguerite A. Renouf 13.1 Introduction, 333 13.2 Life cycle assessment (LCA) of sugarcane systems, 335 13.2.1 Overview of LCA and carbon footprinting, 335 13.2.2 Past LCA and carbon footprint studies of sugarcane bioproducts, 337 13.3 Greenhouse gas/carbon footprint profile of sugarcane bioproducts, 339 13.3.1 Land use change, 339 13.3.2 Sugarcane production, 340 13.3.3 Sugarcane biorefining, 342 13.3.4 Downstream phases, 343 13.4 Greenhouse gas (GHG) abatement from sugarcane products, 343 13.4.1 Comparing sugarcane products with fossil fuel products, 343 13.4.2 Influence of land-use change, 344 13.4.3 Comparing sugarcane with other biomass feedstock, 345 13.4.4 Attributes for GHG abatement, 348 13.5 Environmental trade-offs, 349 13.5.1 Land use and associated environmental services, 349 13.5.2 Water use, 350 13.5.3 Water quality, 350 13.5.4 Phosphorus depletion, 351 13.5.5 Balancing the GHG abatement benefits with the environmental trade-offs, 351 13.6 Production pathways that optimize GHG abatement, 352 13.6.1 Production basis (dedicated vs. coproduction), 352 13.6.2 Product outputs, 352 13.6.3 Land used, 354 13.7 Opportunities for further optimizing GHG abatement, 354 13.7.1 Ecoefficient sugarcane growing, 354 13.7.2 Utilization of harvest residues, 355 13.7.3 New sugarcane varieties, 355 13.8 Summary, 355 References, 356 14 Environmental sustainability assessment of sugarcane bioenergy, 363 Shabbir H. Gheewala, Sebastien Bonnet and Thapat Silalertruksa 14.1 Bioenergy and the sustainability challenge, 363 14.2 Prospect of sugarcane bioenergy, 364 14.3 Environmental sustainability assessment tools, 365 14.4 Environmental sustainability assessment of sugarcane bioenergy: Case of Thailand, 366 14.4.1 Background and policy context, 366 14.4.2 Sugarcane farming and production system, 366 14.4.3 Sugarcane farming and harvesting, 367 14.4.4 Sugarcane milling, 367 14.4.5 Ethanol conversion, 368 14.4.6 Transport, 368 14.5 Net energy balance and net energy ratio, 369 14.6 Life cycle environmental impacts, 369 14.7 Key environmental considerations for promoting sugarcane bioenergy, 372 References, 376 Index, 379

Product Details

  • publication date: 06/05/2016
  • ISBN13: 9781118719916
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 408
  • ID: 9781118719916
  • weight: 928
  • ISBN10: 1118719913

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