Surface Generation in Ultra-precision Diamond Turning: Modelling and Practices (Engineering Research Series (REP))

Surface Generation in Ultra-precision Diamond Turning: Modelling and Practices (Engineering Research Series (REP))

By: Benny C. F. Cheung (author), W. B. Lee (author)Hardback

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Description

This is an "Engineering Research Series" title. One of the remarkable achievements of modern manufacturing techniques is the ability to achieve nano metre surface finishes. Ultraprecision machining based on single point diamond turning (SPDT) is a very important technique in the manufacture of high precision components where surface finish is critical. Complex optical surfaces, for example, can be produced without the need for post machining polishing. This book focuses on the aspect of modelling nano surface generation in ultra precision SPDT. Potential industrial applications in the prediction of surface quality, the process optimization, and precision mould manufacturing are also studied. The essential differences between single point diamond turning and conventional machining are described. The history and technology of single point diamond turning are presented and single chapters emphasize the related metrology and cutting mechanics. Important aspects of surface generation are also discussed. Features of the text are the sound approach, systematic mathematical modelling, and computer aided simulation of surface generation in the development of surfaces exhibiting nano surface qualities. Toppics covered include: Fundamentals of ultra precision diamond turning technology; Cutting mechanics and analysis of microcutting force variation; Mechanisms of surface generation; Characterization and modelling of nano surface generation; Computer aided simulation of nano surface generation; and, Diamond turning of aspheric optics. Based upon the extensive experience of the authors, "Surface Generation in Ultra precision Diamond Turning: Modelling and Practices" will be of interest to engineers, scientists, and postgraduate students.

Contents

Series Editor's Foreword xi Foreword xiii Acknowledgements xiv Notation xv Chapter 1 Introduction 1 1.1 What is ultra-precision diamond turning? 1 1.2 Achievable machining accuracy and surface roughness 3 1.3 Research on surface generation 4 1.4 Layout of the Book 5 Chapter 2 Fundamentals of Ultra-precision Diamond Turning Technology 7 2.1 Underlying technology of ultra-precision diamond turning 7 2.1.1 Machine tools and controls 7 2.1.2 Machining environment 10 2.1.3 Design and properties of single crystal diamond cutting tools 12 2.2 Work materials 15 2.2.1 Ductile materials 16 2.2.2 Brittle materials 17 2.2.3 Single crystal materials 17 2.2.4 Amorphous materials 18 2.2.5 Metal Matrix Composites 19 2.3 Associated metrology 20 2.3.1 Stylus type instrument 20 2.3.2 Optical interferometric instrument 21 Chapter 3 Cutting Mechanics and Analysis of Micro-cutting Force Variation 23 3.1 Introduction 23 3.2 Cutting mechanics 24 3.2.1 Deformation behaviour of materials in machining 24 3.2.2 Mechanism of plastic deformation 27 3.3 Chip formation 29 3.4 Cutting forces and nature of cutting force variations 33 3.5 Analysis of micro-cutting force variations 34 3.5.1 Measurement of micro-cutting forces 34 3.5.2 Parametric analysis 35 3.5.3 Statistical analysis 37 3.5.4 Spectrum analysis 40 3.5.4.1 Variation of cutting force for crystalline materials 41 3.5.4.2 Variation of cutting force for metal matrix composites 48 3.5.5 Microplasticity analysis for crystalline materials 54 3.5.5.1 Microplasticity model for shear angle prediction 54 3.5.5.2 Texture softening factor 58 3.5.5.3 Criterion for shear angle prediction 62 3.5.5.4 Variation of micro-cutting forces 62 3.5.6 Finite element analysis of cutting forces for metal matrix composites (MMCs) 69 3.5.6.1 Theoretical background of the FEM analysis 70 3.5.6.2 Numerical experimentation 73 Chapter 4 Mechanisms of Surface Generation 79 4.1 Introduction 79 4.2 Deformation behaviour and formation of surface 79 4.3 Mechanisms of surface generation 84 4.3.1 Kinematic tool interference 84 4.3.2 Materials swelling 87 4.3.3 Brittle-ductile transition for brittle materials 89 4.3.4 Cut through and pulled out mechanisms for metal matrix composites 91 4.4 Study of factors affecting surface generation 94 4.4.1 Process factors 94 4.4.2 Material factors 101 Chapter 5 Characterization of Nano-surface Generation 107 5.1 Introduction 107 5.2 Spectrum analysis of surface roughness profile 109 5.2.1 Theoretical background 109 5.2.2 Characteristic features of the power spectrum of surface roughness profile 110 5.2.3 Characterization of power spectrum of surface roughness profile 113 5.3 Multi-spectrum analysis 128 5.3.1 Sources of local variation of surface roughness 129 5.3.2 Multi-spectrum analysis method 131 5.3.3 Variation of the surface roughness profiles and parameters 133 5.3.4 Patterns of multi-spectrum plots 137 5.3.5 Local materials swelling and plastic anisotropy 138 5.3.6 Materials induced vibration 139 5.4 Multiple Data Dependent Systems (MDDS) analysis 140 5.4.1 Theoretical background of Data Dependent Systems (DDS) modelling procedure 140 5.4.2 Multiple Data Dependent Systems (MDDS) method 143 5.4.3 Effect of process parameters on MDDS analysis 144 5.4.4 Effect of material properties and crystallographic orientation of the workpiece 146 Chapter 6 Modelling of Nano-surface Generation 157 6.1 Introduction 157 6.2 Two-dimensional analysis of surface roughness profile 158 6.3 Three-dimensional (3D) surface topography model 162 6.4 Dynamic surface topography model 167 6.4.1 Dynamics of the cutting system 168 6.4.1.1 Sources of vibrations 168 6.4.1.2 Modelling, analysis and characterisation 169 6.4.2 Dynamic Model for the cutting system 171 6.4.2.1 Formulation of second order autoregressive model A(2) for a vibration system 171 6.4.2.2 Model for the vibration system 173 6.4.2.3 Uniformly sampled second order autoregressive moving average ARMA(2,1) system 174 6.4.2.4 Estimation of covariance equivalent ARMA(2,1) model 175 6.4.2.5 Representation of the cutting system 176 6.4.2.6 Determination of the relative tool-workpiece displacement 178 6.4.2.7 Characterization of the dynamic cutting system 179 6.4.3 Enhanced surface topography model 183 Chapter 7 Computer-Aided Simulation of Nano-surface Generation 187 7.1 Introduction 187 7.2 Simulation of surface roughness profiles 188 7.2.1 SYNPROFILE software package 188 7.2.2 Performance in the generation of a surface roughness profile 189 7.3 Simulation of 3D surface topography 196 7.3.1 SYNSURF3D software package 196 7.3.2 Visual performance of the 3D model in the simulation of surface topography 198 7.3.3 Parametric analysis of the performance under different cutting conditions 202 7.4 Simulation of the anisotropy of surface generation 210 7.4.1 DYNSURF3D software package 210 7.4.2 Simulation of materials induced vibration and its effect on the surface generation 212 7.4.3 Performance in the prediction of the local variation of surface roughness 218 Chapter 8 Diamond Turning of Aspheric Optics 227 8.1 Introduction 227 8.2 Manufacture for aspheric surfaces 227 8.2.1 Aspheric surfaces 228 8.2.2 Ultra-precision diamond turning of aspheric surfaces 229 8.2.3 Aspheric surface generation 229 8.2.4 Residual form error - tool decentring 230 8.2.5 Compensation methods of residual form error 230 8.2.5.1 Empirical method 230 8.2.5.2 Tool path compensation method 232 8.3 Process chain for manufacturing plastic optical components 236 8.3.1 Phase I: Optics design and evaluation 236 8.3.2 Phase II: Actual production and product optical quality evaluation 241 8.4 Virtual manufacturing of aspheric optics 242 8.4.1 A comparison between conventional and virtual manufacturing system (VMS) approaches 243 8.5 Case study - wide field binoculars 249 References 253 Index 267

Product Details

  • ISBN13: 9781860583988
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 288
  • ID: 9781860583988
  • weight: 962
  • ISBN10: 1860583989

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