Sustainability Assessment of Renewables-Based Products: Methods and Case Studies (Wiley Series in Renewable Resource)

Sustainability Assessment of Renewables-Based Products: Methods and Case Studies (Wiley Series in Renewable Resource)

By: Steven De Meester (editor), Rodrigo A. F. Alvarenga (editor), Jo Dewulf (editor)Hardback

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Description

Over the past decade, renewables-based technology and sustainability assessment methods have grown tremendously. Renewable energy and products have a significant role in the market today, and the same time sustainability assessment methods have advanced, with a growing standardization of environmental sustainability metrics and consideration of social issues as part of the assessment. Sustainability Assessment of Renewables-Based Products: Methods and Case Studies is an extensive update and sequel to the 2006 title Renewables-Based Technology: Sustainability Assessment. It discusses the impressive evolution and role renewables have taken in our modern society, highlighting the importance of sustainability principles in the design phase of renewable-based technologies, and presenting a wide range of sustainability assessment methods suitable for renewables-based technologies, together with case studies to demonstrate their applications. This book is a valuable resource for academics, businesses and policy makers who are active in contributing to more sustainable production and consumption. For more information on the Wiley Series in Renewable Resources, visit www.wiley.com/go/rrs Topics covered include: * The growing role of renewables in our society * Sustainability in the design phase of products and processes * Principles of sustainability assessment * Land use analysis * Water use analysis * Material and energy flow analysis * Exergy and cumulative exergy analysisCarbon and environmental footprint methods * Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), social Life Cycle Assessment and Life Cycle Costing (LCC) * Case studies: renewable energy, bio-based chemicals and bio-based materials.

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About Author

Prof. Dr. Jo Dewulf, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, JRC, European Commision, Italy and Sustainable Organic Chemistry and Technology, Ghent University, Belgium Professor Dewulf performs research in the areas of environmental chemistry, environmental technology and clean technology at Ghent University. Since December 2013, he has been working as a senior researcher in the Institute for Environment and Sustainability at the Joint Research Institute of the European Commission. Key in his work is managing natural resources in a technically efficient way, performing thermodynamics based sustainability analysis at process, plant and cradle-to-gate level to support the development and assessment of new technologies. Supported by: Dr Steven De Meester, Sustainable Organic Chemistry and Technology, Ghent University, Belgium Dr De Meester works on the development of sustainability assessment methodologies for new technologies and applications of Life Cycle Assessment in industry. Dr Rodrigo Alvarenga, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Brazil

Contents

List of Contributors xvii Series Editor s Preface xxiii Preface xxvii 1 The Growing Role of Biomass for Future Resource Supply Prospects and Pitfalls 1 Helmut Haberl 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 Global Ecological and Socioeconomic Biomass Flows 3 1.3 Global Biomass Potentials in 2050 5 1.4 Critical Socio -Ecological Feedbacks and Sustainability Issues 9 1.5 Conclusions 12 Acknowledgements 12 References 13 2 The Growing Role of Photovoltaic Solar, Wind and Geothermal Energy as Renewables for Electricity Generation 19 W.G.J.H.M. van Sark, J.G. Schepers, and J.D.A.M. van Wees 2.1 General Introduction 19 2.2 Photovoltaic Solar Energy 21 2.3 Wind Energy 24 2.4 Geothermal Energy 28 2.5 Conclusion 33 References 34 3 Assessment of Sustainability within Holistic Process Design 37 Alexei Lapkin, Philipp ]Maximilian Jacob, Polina Yaseneva, Charles Gordon, and Amy Peace 3.1 Introduction: Holistic Process Design from Unit Operations to Systems Science Methods 37 3.2 Use of Life Cycle Assessment in Holistic Process Design 40 3.3 A Decision -Tree Methodology for Complex Process Design 41 3.4 Generation of New Synthesis Routes in Bio -Based Supply Chains 45 3.5 Conclusions 47 Acknowledgements 48 References 48 4 A Mass Balance Approach to Link Sustainable Renewable Resources in Chemical Synthesis with Market Demand 51 Claudius Kormann and Andreas Kicherer 4.1 Introduction 51 4.2 Renewable Feedstock: Market Drivers, Political Frame 52 4.3 Traceability of Biomass as Feedstock in the Chemical Industry 53 4.4 Standard of Mass Balance in Chemical Synthesis 57 4.5 Sustainability Aspects of Renewable Resources 60 4.6 Discussion 61 4.7 Vision and Summary 62 References 63 5 Early R&D Stage Sustainability Assessment: The 5 Pillar Method 65 Akshay D. Patel, John A. Posada, Li Shen, and Martin K. Patel 5.1 Introduction 65 5.2 Methodology 67 5.3 Case Study 73 5.4 Validation Case Study 75 5.5 Critical Review and Outlook 76 5.6 Conclusion 79 References 79 6 Assessing the Sustainability of Land Use: A Systems Approach 81 Miguel Brandao 6.1 Introduction 81 6.2 Methodological Issue 1: Consequential Analysis of Land Use Decisions 82 6.3 Methodological Issue 2: Land Use Impacts on Ecosystems 87 6.4 Methodological Issue 3: Land Use Impacts on Climate 89 6.5 Methodological Issue 4: Economic and Social Impact Assessment 90 6.6 Methodological Issue 5: Integrating Environmental and Economic Assessments 92 6.7 Discussion 93 6.8 Conclusions 94 References 94 7 Water Use Analysis 97 Francesca Verones, Stephan Pfister, and Markus Berger 7.1 Introduction 97 7.2 Methods and Tools for Assessing the Sustainable Use of Water 98 7.3 Case Study: Water Consumption Analysis of Biofuels and Fossil Fuels 102 7.4 Discussion and Conclusion 105 References 106 8 Material Intensity of Food Production and Consumption 109 Lucia Mancini and Michael Lettenmeier 8.1 Introduction 109 8.2 Material Flow Based Approaches for Assessing Sustainable Production and Consumption Systems 110 8.3 MIPS Concept and Methodology 111 8.4 Material Intensity of Food Systems 113 8.5 Results of MIPS for Agricultural Products and Foodstuffs 118 8.6 Conclusions 121 References 122 9 Material and Energy Flow Analysis 125 Goto Naohiro, Nova Ulhasanah, Hirotsugu Kamahara, Udin Hasanudin, Ryuichi Tachibana, and Koichi Fujie 9.1 Background 125 9.2 Methodology 128 9.3 Case Study 131 9.4 Conclusion 139 Acknowledgements 139 References 139 10 Exergy and Cumulative Exergy Use Analysis 141 Sofie Huysman, Thomas Schaubroeck, and Jo Dewulf 10.1 What Is Exergy 141 10.2 Calculation of Exergy 142 10.3 Applications of Exergy 144 10.4 Cumulative Exergy Use Analysis 146 10.5 Conclusions 151 References 152 11 Carbon and Environmental Footprint Methods for Renewables based Products and Transition Pathways to 2050 155 Geoffrey P. Hammond 11.1 Introduction 155 11.2 Carbon and Environmental (or Eco) Footprinting 159 11.3 The Relationship between Environmental Footprint Analysis (EFA) and Environmental Life ]Cycle Assessment (LCA) 166 11.4 Carbon and Environmental Footprints Associated with Global Biofuel Production 167 11.5 Carbon and Environmental Footprints of Low Carbon Transition Pathways 171 11.6 Concluding Remarks 174 Acknowledgements 175 References 176 12 Tracking Supply and Demand of Biocapacity through Ecological Footprint Accounting 179 David Lin, Alessandro Galli, Michael Borucke, Elias Lazarus, Nicole Grunewald, Jon Martindill, David Zimmerman, Serena Mancini, Katsunori Iha, and Mathis Wackernagel 12.1 Summary and Rationale 179 12.2 Methodology 182 12.3 Usage Recommendations 193 12.4 Future Developments 195 References 195 13 Life Cycle Assessment and Sustainability Supporting Decision Making by Business and Policy 201 Sala Serenella, Fabrice Mathieux, and Rana Pant 13.1 Life Cycle Assessment: A Systemic Approach to Evaluate Impacts 201 13.2 LCA: Supporting Sustainability Assessment 205 13.3 Role of LCA in Supporting Decisions in Business and Policy Context 206 13.4 Tools and Support to Put LCA into Practice 210 13.5 Conclusion and the Way Forward 211 Acknowledgements 211 References 212 14 Life Cycle Costing 215 Andreas Ciroth, Jutta Hildenbrand, and Bengt Steen 14.1 Life Cycle Costing Definition and Principles 215 14.2 Environmental LCC 216 14.3 Societal LCC 220 14.4 LCC and Renewables 221 14.5 Example Case 222 References 228 15 Social Life Cycle Assessment: Methodologies and Practice 229 Alessandra Zamagni, Pauline Feschet, Anna Irene De Luca, Nathalie Iofrida, and Patrizia Buttol 15.1 Introduction 229 15.2 Social Life Cycle Assessment: Scientific Background 230 15.3 Social Life Cycle Assessment in Practice 232 15.4 SLCA and Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment: Methodological Challenges 234 15.5 Conclusions and Outlook 236 References 237 16 Life Cycle Assessment of Solar Technologies 241 F. Ardente, M. Cellura, S. Longo, and M. Mistretta 16.1 Introduction 241 16.2 Solar Technologies 242 16.3 Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Solar Technologies 245 16.3.1 Solar Thermal Plants 246 16.3.2 Photovoltaic Plants 246 16.3.3 Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Plants and Solar Heating/Cooling Plants 249 16.4 Assessment of Solar Technologies 249 16.5 Conclusions 256 References 256 17 Assessing the Sustainability of Geothermal Utilization 259 Ruth Shortall, Gudni Axelsson, and Brynhildur Davidsdottir 17.1 Introduction 259 17.2 Sustainable Geothermal Utilization 260 17.3 Broader Sustainability Assessment of Energy Developments 266 17.4 Sustainability Assessment Framework for Geothermal Power 266 17.5 Conclusion 271 References 271 18 Biofuels from Terrestrial Biomass: Sustainability Assessment of Sugarcane Biorefineries in Brazil 275 Otavio Cavalett, Marcos D.B. Watanabe, Alexandre Souza, Mateus F. Chagas, Tassia L. Junqueira, and Antonio Bonomi 18.1 Introduction 275 18.2 The Virtual Sugarcane Biorefinery (VSB) 276 18.3 Methods Used in the VSB 277 18.4 Biorefinery Scenarios Case Study 279 18.5 Final Remarks 286 Acknowledgements 286 References 287 19 Algae as Promising Biofeedstock; Searching for Sustainable Production Processes and Market Applications 289 Sue Ellen Taelman, Steven De Meester, and Jo Dewulf 19.1 Introduction 289 19.2 Algae Background 290 19.3 Algal Cultivation and Processing Methods 292 19.4 Algae: Production and Potential Applications 294 19.5 Environmental Sustainability of Algae Production 298 19.6 Conclusions 302 References 303 20 Life Cycle Assessment of Biobased and Fossil Based Succinic Acid 307 Marieke Smidt, Jeroen den Hollander, Henk Bosch, Yang Xiang, Maarten van der Graaf, Anne Lambin, and Jean ]Pierre Duda 20.1 Production of Succinic Acid 307 20.2 Life Cycle Assessment: Biobased Succinic Acid and Fossil ]Based Equivalent 310 20.3 Sensitivity Analysis 316 20.4 Conclusions 319 References 320 21 Biobased Poly Vinylchloride (PVC) 323 Rodrigo A.F. Alvarenga, Zdenek Hruska, Alain Wathelet, and Jo Dewulf 21.1 Introduction 323 21.2 Life Cycle Assessment of Biobased PVC 324 21.3 Carbon Footprint of Biobased Product 329 21.4 Environmental Sustainability of Bioethanol Use 330 21.5 Conclusions 331 References 332 22 Evaluation of Wood Cascading 335 Karin Hoglmeier, Gabriele Weber -Blaschke, and Klaus Richter 22.1 Introduction 335 22.2 Environmental Assessment of Wood Cascading by LCA 338 22.3 Discussion and Conclusion 343 Acknowledgements 345 References 345 23 Time ]Dependent Life Cycle Assessment of Bio -Based Packaging Materials 347 Maartje N. Sevenster 23.1 Introduction 347 23.2 Methodology 351 23.3 Results 353 23.4 Discussion 357 23.5 Conclusions 358 References 358 24 Conclusions 361 Jo Dewulf 24.1 The Importance of Renewables ]Based Products and Services 361 24.2 The Need for Sustainability Assessment for Renewables: Even More Than in the Past 362 24.3 The Growing Sustainability Assessment Toolbox 363 24.4 Outlook: Pending Challenges 364 Index

Product Details

  • publication date: 22/01/2016
  • ISBN13: 9781118933947
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 400
  • ID: 9781118933947
  • weight: 818
  • ISBN10: 111893394X

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