Sweeteners and Sugar Alternatives in Food         Technology 2E (2nd Revised edition)

Sweeteners and Sugar Alternatives in Food Technology 2E (2nd Revised edition)

By: M. W. Kearsley (editor), Kay O'Donnell (editor)Hardback

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Description

This book provides a comprehensive and accessible source of information on all types of sweeteners and functional ingredients, enabling manufacturers to produce low sugar versions of all types of foods that not only taste and perform as well as sugar-based products, but also offer consumer benefits such as calorie reduction, dental health benefits, digestive health benefits and improvements in long term disease risk through strategies such as dietary glycaemic control. Now in a revised and updated new edition which contains seven new chapters, part I of this volume addresses relevant digestive and dental health issues as well as nutritional considerations. Part II covers non-nutritive, high-potency sweeteners and, in addition to established sweeteners, includes information to meet the growing interest in naturally occurring sweeteners. Part III deals with the bulk sweeteners which have now been used in foods for over 20 years and are well established both in food products and in the minds of consumers. In addition to the "traditional" polyol bulk sweeteners, newer products such as isomaltulose are discussed. These are seen to offer many of the advantages of polyols (for example regarding dental heath and low glycaemic response) without the laxative side effects if consumed in large quantity. Part IV provides information on the sweeteners which do not fit into the above groups but which nevertheless may offer interesting sweetening opportunities to the product developer. Finally, Part V examines bulking agents and multifunctional ingredients which can be beneficially used in combination with all types of sweeteners and sugars.

About Author

Kay O Donnell has worked in the food industry for over 20 years, in a variety of senior R&D and commercial roles, for companies including Forum Bioscience, Cadbury, Kraft, GSK and Mars. Malcolm W. Kearsley was most recently a Principal Scientist with Cadbury at their research centre in Reading, UK. After a career in teaching, research and technical sales in the food industry, he is now retired.

Contents

Preface xvii Contributors xix PART ONE: NUTRITION AND HEALTH CONSIDERATIONS 1 1 Glycaemic Responses and Toleration 3 Geoffrey Livesey 1.1 Introduction 3 1.2 Glycaemic response in ancient times 4 1.3 Glycaemic response approaching the millennium 5 1.4 The glycaemic response now and in future nutrition 6 1.5 Glycaemic response and adverse outcomes: both physiological and in response to advice 7 1.6 Measurement and expression of the glycaemic response 7 1.7 The acute glycaemic response to sugars and alternatives 13 1.8 Long-term glycaemic control with sweeteners and bulking agents 15 1.9 Are low glycaemic carbohydrates of benefit in healthy persons? 18 1.10 Gastrointestinal tolerance in relation to the glycaemic response 18 1.11 Conclusion 19 2 Dental Health 27 Anne Maguire 2.1 Introduction 27 2.2 Dental caries 27 2.3 Reduced-calorie bulk sweeteners 32 2.4 High-potency (high-intensity) sweeteners 43 2.5 Bulking agents 47 2.6 Summary 49 3 Digestive Health 63 Henna Roytio, Kirsti Tiihonen and Arthur C. Ouwehand 3.1 Introduction; prebiotics, sweeteners and gut health 63 3.2 Intestinal microbiota 63 3.3 Gut health 64 3.4 Prebiotics versus fibre 64 3.5 Endogenous prebiotics 64 3.6 Prebiotics 65 3.7 Current prebiotics 65 3.8 Health benefits 67 3.9 Synbiotics 69 3.10 Safety considerations 70 3.11 Conclusion 71 4 Calorie Control and Weight Management 77 Michele Sadler and Julian D. Stowell 4.1 Introduction 77 4.2 Caloric contribution of sugars in the diet 77 4.3 Calorie control and its importance in weight management 77 4.4 Calorie reduction in foods 78 4.5 Appetite and satiety research 80 4.6 Sweeteners and satiety, energy intakes and body weight 81 4.7 Relevance of energy density and glycaemic response 84 4.8 Legislation relevant to reduced calorie foods 85 4.9 Conclusions 87 PART TWO: HIGH-POTENCY SWEETENERS 91 5 Acesulfame K 93 Christian Klug and Gert-Wolfhard von Rymon Lipinski 5.1 Introduction and history 93 5.2 Organoleptic properties 93 5.3 Physical and chemical properties 98 5.4 Physiological properties 100 5.5 Applications 100 5.6 Safety and analytical methods 110 5.7 Regulatory status 112 6 Aspartame, Neotame and Advantame 117 Kay O'Donnell 6.1 Aspartame 117 6.2 Neotame 127 6.3 Advantame 132 7 Saccharin and Cyclamate 137 Grant E. DuBois 7.1 Introduction 137 7.2 Current understanding of sweetness 137 7.3 Saccharin 139 7.4 Cyclamate 151 8 Sucralose 167 Samuel V. Molinary and Mary E. Quinlan 8.1 Introduction 167 8.2 History of development 167 8.3 Production 168 8.4 Organoleptic properties 168 8.5 Physico-chemical properties 170 8.6 Physiological properties 174 8.7 Applications 175 8.8 Analytical methods 179 8.9 Safety 179 8.10 Regulatory status 181 9 Natural High-Potency Sweeteners 185 Michael G. Lindley 9.1 Introduction 185 9.2 The sweeteners 187 9.3 Conclusions 203 PART THREE: REDUCED-CALORIE BULK SWEETENERS 213 10 Erythritol 215 Peter de Cock 10.1 Introduction 215 10.2 Organoleptic properties 218 10.3 Physical and chemical properties 219 10.4 Physiological properties and health benefits 221 10.5 Applications 228 10.6 Safety and specifications 239 10.7 Regulatory status 239 10.8 Conclusions 240 11 Isomalt 243 Anke Sentko and Ingrid Willibald-Ettle 11.1 Introduction 243 11.2 Organoleptic properties 244 11.3 Physical and chemical properties 245 11.4 Physiological properties 252 11.5 Applications 254 11.6 Safety 270 11.7 Regulatory status: worldwide 271 11.8 Conclusions 271 12 Lactitol 275 Christos Zacharis 12.1 History 275 12.2 Organoleptic properties 275 12.3 Physical and chemical properties 276 12.4 Physiological properties 281 12.5 Health benefits 282 12.6 Applications 287 12.7 Regulatory status 291 12.8 Conclusions 291 13 Maltitol Powder 295 Malcolm W. Kearsley and Ronald C. Deis 13.1 Introduction 295 13.2 Production 296 13.3 Structure 297 13.4 Physical and chemical properties 297 13.5 Physiological properties 299 13.6 Applications in foods 302 13.7 Labelling claims 305 13.8 Legal status 306 13.9 Conclusions 306 14 Maltitol Syrups 309 Michel Flambeau, Frederique Respondek and Anne Wagner 14.1 Introduction 309 14.2 Production 310 14.3 Hydrogenation 311 14.4 Structure 312 14.5 Physico-chemical characteristics 312 14.6 Physiological properties 316 14.7 Applications in foods 323 14.8 Legal status 329 14.9 Safety 329 14.10 Conclusions 329 15 Sorbitol and Mannitol 331 Ronald C. Deis and Malcolm W. Kearsley 15.1 Introduction 331 15.2 Production 331 15.3 Hydrogenation 335 15.4 Storage 335 15.5 Structure 335 15.6 Safety 336 15.7 Physico-chemical characteristics 337 15.8 Physiological properties 339 15.9 Applications in foods 342 15.10 Non-food applications 344 15.11 Legal status 345 15.12 Conclusions 346 16 Xylitol 347 Christos Zacharis 16.1 Description 347 16.2 Organoleptic properties 348 16.3 Physical and chemical properties 350 16.4 Physiological properties 354 16.5 Applications 366 16.6 Safety 369 16.7 Regulatory status 370 PART FOUR: OTHER SWEETENERS 383 17 New Developments in Sweeteners 385 Guy Servant and Gwen Rosenberg 17.1 Sweet taste modulators 385 17.2 Sweet modulator targets 385 17.3 Industry need for reduced-calorie offerings 385 17.4 Sweet taste receptors 386 17.5 Commercially viable sweet taste modulators 390 17.6 Regulatory approval of sweet taste modulators 390 17.7 Commercialisation of sweet taste modulators 391 17.8 Future sweet taste modulators and new sweeteners 392 17.9 Modulators for other taste modalities 392 17.10 Savoury flavour ingredients 393 17.11 Bitter blockers 393 17.12 Cooling flavours 393 17.13 Salt taste modulators 394 17.14 Conclusions 394 18 Isomaltulose 397 Anke Sentko and Ingrid Willibald-Ettle 18.1 Introduction 397 18.2 Organoleptical properties 397 18.3 Physical and chemical properties 398 18.4 Microbiological properties 401 18.5 Physiological properties 402 18.6 Toxicological evaluations 406 18.7 Applications 406 18.8 Regulatory status 413 18.9 Conclusions 413 19 Trehalose 417 Takanobu Higashiyama and Alan B. Richards 19.1 Introduction 417 19.2 Trehalose in nature 418 19.3 Production 419 19.4 Metabolism, safety and tolerance 420 19.5 Regulatory status 421 19.6 Properties 421 19.7 Application in food 423 19.8 Physiological properties 426 19.9 Conclusions 428 PART FIVE: BULKING AGENTS MULTI-FUNCTIONAL INGREDIENTS 433 20 Bulking Agents Multi-Functional Ingredients 435 Michael Auerbach and Anne-Karine Dedman 20.1 Introduction 435 20.2 Gluco-polysaccharides 437 0.3 Resistant starches and resistant maltodextrins 449 20.4 Fructo-oligosaccharides 454 References 462 Index 471

Product Details

  • ISBN13: 9780470659687
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 504
  • ID: 9780470659687
  • weight: 1
  • ISBN10: 0470659688
  • edition: 2nd Revised edition

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