The study of isoperimetric inequalities involves a fascinating interplay of analysis, geometry and the theory of partial differential equations. Several conjectures have been made and while many have been resolved, a large number still remain open.One of the principal tools in the study of isoperimetric problems, especially when spherical symmetry is involved, is Schwarz symmetrization, which is also known as the spherically symmetric and decreasing rearrangement of functions. The aim of this book is to give an introduction to the theory of Schwarz symmetrization and study some of its applications.The book gives an modern and up-to-date treatment of the subject and includes several new results proved recently. Effort has been made to keep the exposition as simple and self-contained as possible. A knowledge of the existence theory of weak solutions of elliptic partial differential equations in Sobolev spaces is, however, assumed. Apart from this and a general mathematical maturity at the graduate level, there are no other prerequisites.