Synthesis of Polymers: New Structures and Methods (Materials Science and Technology: A Comprehensive Treatment)

Synthesis of Polymers: New Structures and Methods (Materials Science and Technology: A Comprehensive Treatment)

By: Junji Sakamoto (editor), Craig Hawker (editor), Dieter A. Schluter (editor)Hardback

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Description

Edited and written by the "Who's who" in polymer science and technology, this two-volume handbook and ready reference is a must-have compilation on the topic. At once comprehensive and trendy, all relevant topics are covered, with the chapters focusing either on the different types of polymerization reactions, or on the important classes of polymers, or on their applications. The result is an overview that equally provides a generous amount of information on the latest research developments.

About Author

A. Dieter Schluter is since 2004 Professor for polymer chemistry at the Materials Department of the ETH Zurich. He studied chemistry and geophysics at the University of Munich and received in 1984 his PhD under the supervision of Prof. G. Szeimies. After post-doctoral fellowships with Prof. K. P.C. Vollhardt (UC Berkeley, USA) and Prof. W.J. Feast (University of Durham, UK) he was head of the polymer synthesis research group in Prof. G. Wegner's department at the Max-Planck-Institut fur Polymerforschung (Mainz, Germany). 1991 he finished his habilitation, received a scholarship award of the Fonds der Chemischen Industrie and started as Professor for polymer chemistry at the University of Karlsruhe. From 1992 to 2004 he was Full Professor at the Free University of Berlin. Since 2012 he is an elected personal member of the Swiss Academy of Engineering Sciences. His research interests are in the area of polymer synthesis with a visible component of organic chemistry. Craig J. Hawker, FRS received his BSc (1984) degree from Queensland, Australia his PhD (1988) degree from the Cambridge (UK), followed by a post-doctoral fellowship with Professor Jean M.J. Frechet at Cornell from 1988 to 1990. In 2005 he moved from the IBM Almaden Research Center to the University of California, Santa Barbara where he is the Heeger Chair of Interdisciplinary Science. He is also the Director of the Materials Research Laboratory, founding Director of the Dow Materials Institute and visiting Chair Professor at King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals. His research activities focus on synthetic polymer chemistry and nanotechnology and has led to more than 45 patents and over 300 papers. He has received a number of awards for his work and in 2010 he was named as a Fellow of the Royal Society. Junji Sakamoto is currently a Habilitand at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) Zurich. Born in Kyoto, Japan in 1973, he studied chemistry and polymer science at Kyoto University, and earned his PhD in 2002 on the synthesis of polysaccharides under the supervision of Prof. S. Kobayashi. He carried out his postdoctoral research with Prof. K. Mullen at the Max-Planck-Institute for Polymer Research in Mainz, Germany, working on the synthesis of dendrimers (2002-2004). He then moved to the group of Prof. A.D. Schluter at ETH Zurich, Switzerland, working on the synthesis of macrocycles, where since 2006 he has been a group leader for 2D polymers, Suzuki polycondensation and new polymerization methodology leading to unprecedented structures.

Contents

List of Contributors XV Content of Volume 1 1 Foreword 1 References 6 2 Polymer Synthesis: An Industrial Perspective 7 Sebastian Koltzenburg 2.1 About this Chapter 7 2.2 Why? 8 2.3 Thesis: There Are No Limits to the Fantasy of a Synthetic Polymer Chemist 8 2.4 Antithesis: We May Be Able to Synthesize Millions of New Polymers But Why Should We Do So? 11 2.5 Synthesis 13 2.6 Conclusions 22 Acknowledgments 23 3 From Heterogeneous Ziegler Natta to Homogeneous Single-Center Group 4 Organometallic Catalysts: A Primer on the Coordination Polymerization of Olefins 25 Lawrence R. Sita 3.1 Introduction 25 3.2 Chapter Prospectus 28 3.3 Fundamentals of Coordination Polymerization 30 3.4 Homogeneous Single-Center Coordination Polymerization 44 3.5 Conclusions 63 Acknowledgments 63 References 63 4 Cobalt-Mediated Radical Polymerization 67 Antoine Debuigne, Robert Jerome, Christine Jerome, and Christophe Detrembleur 4.1 Introduction 67 4.2 Mechanistic Considerations 67 4.3 Key Parameters of CMRP 69 4.4 Macromolecular Engineering 73 4.5 Cobalt-Mediated Radical Coupling (CMRC) 75 4.6 Summary and Outlook 76 Acknowledgments 77 References 77 5 Anionic Polymerization: Recent Advances 81 Takashi Ishizone and Akira Hirao 5.1 Background 81 5.2 Living Anionic Polymerization of Various Monomers 84 5.3 (Meth)acrylate Derivatives 90 5.4 Acrylamide Derivatives 94 5.5 Cyclic Monomers 96 5.6 Other Monomers 99 5.7 Reaction of Living Anionic Polymers with Electrophiles: Synthesis of Chain-Functionalized Polymers 101 5.8 Synthesis of Architectural Polymers via Living Anionic Polymerization 106 5.9 Anionic Polymerization: Practical Aspects 124 5.10 Concluding Remarks 124 References 125 6 Alkyne Metathesis Polymerization (ADIMET) and Macrocyclization (ADIMAC) 135 Aaron D. Finke and Jeffrey S. Moore 6.1 Introduction 135 6.2 Catalyst Development 136 6.3 Poly(Phenylene Ethynylene)s via ADIMET 138 6.4 ADIMAC-Acyclic Diyne Metathesis Macrocyclization 143 6.5 Conclusions 149 References 151 7 The Synthesis of Conjugated Polythiophenes by Kumada Cross-Coupling 155 Felix P. V. Koch and Martin Heeney 7.1 Introduction to Polythiophene 155 7.2 Kumada Cross-Coupling 157 7.3 Polythiophenes by Kumada Cross-Coupling 158 7.4 Copolymers 188 7.5 Summary and Outlook 193 References 194 8 Absolute Asymmetric Polymerization within Crystalline Architectures: Relevance to the Origin of Homochirality 199 Isabelle Weissbuch and Meir Lahav 8.1 Introduction 199 8.2 Through-Space Asymmetric Polymerization in Inclusion Complexes and Liquid Crystals 200 8.3 Isotactic Oligomers Generated within Monolayers at the Air Water Interface 202 8.4 Absolute Asymmetric Polymerization in 3-D Crystals 207 8.5 Generation of Isotactic Oligopeptides via Polymerization in Racemic Crystals 213 8.6 Isotactic Oligopeptides from the Polymerization of Racemic ValNCA or LeuNCA in Aqueous Solution 222 8.7 Racemic -Sheets in the Polymerization of -Amino-Acids in Aqueous Solutions: Homochiral Oligopeptides and Copeptides via the Ehler Orgel Reaction 224 8.8 Isotactic Oligopeptides from Racemic Thioesters of DL-Leu and DL-Val 226 8.9 Conclusions 229 References 232 9 Synthesis of Abiotic Foldamers 235 Anzar Khan 9.1 Introduction 235 9.2 Phenylene Ethynylene Foldamers 237 9.3 Helical Aromatic Amides 241 9.4 Helical Aromatic Ureas 245 9.5 Helical Aromatic Hydrazides 248 9.6 Heterocyclic Foldamers 249 9.7 Conclusions 257 Abbreviations 259 References 259 10 Cylindrical Polymer Brushes 263 Jiayin Yuan and Axel H. E. Muller 10.1 Introduction 263 10.2 Synthesis of CPBs 264 10.3 Properties of CPBs 297 10.4 CPBs as a Template for 1-D Inorganic/Hybrid Nanostructures 301 10.5 Closing Remarks 308 References 309 11 Block Copolymers by Multi-Mode Polymerizations 315 Mehmet Atilla Tasdelen and Yusuf Yagci 11.1 Introduction 315 11.2 Coupling Methods 316 11.3 Transformation Reactions 320 11.4 Dual Polymerizations 338 11.5 Conclusions 342 List of Symbols and Abbreviations 342 References 343 12 Advances in the Synthesis of Cyclic Polymers 351 Ravinder Elupula, Boyd A. Laurent, and Scott M. Grayson 12.1 Introduction 351 12.2 Bimolecular Approach 352 12.3 Unimolecular Approach 355 12.4 Ring-Expansion Approach 364 12.5 Conclusions 369 References 370 13 Cyclodehydrogenation in the Synthesis of Graphene-Type Molecules 373 Milan Kivala, Dongqing Wu, Xinliang Feng, Chen Li, and Klaus Mullen 13.1 Introduction 373 13.2 Lewis Acid-Catalyzed Oxidative Cyclodehydrogenation (Scholl Reaction) 375 13.3 Base-Induced Cyclodehydrogenation 400 13.4 Oxidative Photocyclization (Mallory Reaction) 406 13.5 Surface-Assisted Cyclodehydrogenation 409 13.6 Conclusions 415 References 416 14 Polymerizations in Micro-Reactors 421 Arend Jan Schouten 14.1 Introduction 421 14.2 Polymerization Reactions with Excess Heat Production 425 14.3 Formation of Uniform Particles 433 14.4 Scaling-Up 444 14.5 Conclusions 446 References 447 15 Miniemulsion Polymerization 449 Katharina Landfester and Daniel Crespy 15.1 Introduction 449 15.2 Radical Polymerization 450 15.3 Controlled Radical Polymerizations 457 15.4 Radiation-Induced Polymerization 457 15.5 Metal-Catalyzed Polymerizations 458 15.6 Ionic Polymerizations 459 15.7 Polyaddition 462 15.8 Polycondensation 466 15.9 Enzymatic Polymerization 466 15.10 Oxidative Polymerization 467 15.11 New Synthetic Approaches in Miniemulsion 468 15.12 Conclusions 469 References 470 16 New Conjugated Polymers and Synthetic Methods 475 Anne J. McNeil and Erica L. Lanni 16.1 Introduction 475 16.2 New Polymers Prepared via Chain-Growth Methods 476 16.3 Mechanism 478 16.4 Remaining Limitations 481 16.5 Conclusions and Outlook 482 References 483 17 Polycatenanes 487 Zhenbin Niu and Harry W. Gibson 17.1 Introduction 487 17.2 Main-Chain Polycatenanes 489 17.3 Side-Chain Polycatenanes 508 17.4 Polymeric Catenanes 515 17.5 Catenane Structures in Polymer Networks 521 17.6 Conclusions and Perspective 524 Acknowledgments 524 References 526 18 Multicyclic Polymers 531 Takuya Yamamoto and Yasuyuki Tezuka 18.1 Introduction 531 18.2 Ring Polymers with Branches ( Tadpoles ) 533 18.3 Dicyclic Polymers 534 18.4 Tricyclic and Tetracyclic Polymers 537 18.5 Oligocyclic Polymers 543 18.6 Conclusions and Perspectives 545 References 545 Content of Volume 2 19 Ring-Opening Metathesis Polymerization 547 Michael R. Buchmeiser 19.1 Introduction to Ring-Opening Metathesis Polymerization (ROMP) 547 19.2 Well-Defined Transition Metal-Based Initiators for ROMP 548 19.3 Latent Initiators for ROMP 559 19.4 Living ROMP 561 19.5 Summary and Outlook 579 References 580 20 Recent Advances in ADMET Polycondensation Chemistry 587 Erik B. Berda and Kenneth B. Wagener 20.1 Introduction 587 20.2 Functionalized Polyethylenes 588 20.3 Functional Polymers and Materials via ADMET 592 20.4 Exotic Polymer Structures 595 20.5 Summary and Outlook 598 References 598 21 Macromolecular Engineering via RAFT Chemistry: From Sequential to Modular Design 601 Christopher Barner-Kowollik, James P. Blinco, and Sebastien Perrier 21.1 Introduction 601 21.2 Sequential Design 602 21.3 Modular Design 614 21.4 Conclusions 623 References 624 22 Suzuki Polycondensation 627 Junji Sakamoto and A. Dieter Schluter 22.1 Introduction 627 22.2 General Remarks 627 22.3 How to Perform SPC, and Aspects of Characterization 630 22.4 Recent Progress in Broadening the Scope of SPC 642 22.5 Selected Examples of Polyphenylenes and Related Polymers by SPC 651 22.6 Conclusions and Outlook 667 Acknowledgments 668 References 668 23 Enzymatic Polymerization 677 Hiroshi Uyama 23.1 Introduction 677 23.2 Enzymatic Synthesis of Phenolic Polymers 678 23.3 Enzymatic Synthesis of Polyesters 686 23.4 Concluding Remarks 695 References 696 24 Hyperbranched Polymers: Synthesis and Characterization Aspects 701 Brigitte Voit, Hartmut Komber, and Albena Lederer 24.1 Introduction 701 24.2 Synthetic Methodologies 702 24.3 Characterization Aspects 708 24.4 Separation Techniques for hb Polymers 720 24.5 Size Determination and Scaling Parameters of hb Polymers 731 24.6 Conclusions 734 References 735 25 Emulsion Polymerization 741 Hugo F. Hernandez and Klaus Tauer 25.1 Introduction 741 25.2 Molecular Description of Emulsion Polymerization 742 25.3 Radical Polymerization Kinetics in Emulsion Polymerization 746 25.4 Conclusion 770 Acknowledgments 770 References 770 26 Carbocationic Polymerization 775 Priyadarsi De and Rudolf Faust 26.1 Introduction 775 26.2 Mechanistic and Kinetic Details of Living Cationic Polymerization 776 26.3 Living Cationic Polymerization 778 26.4 Functional Polymers by Living Cationic Polymerization 786 26.5 Telechelic Polymers 790 26.6 Macromonomers 792 26.7 Linear Diblock Copolymers 796 26.8 Linear Triblock Copolymers 799 26.9 Block Copolymers with Nonlinear Architecture 801 26.10 Branched and Hyperbranched Polymers 808 26.11 Surface Initiated Polymerization Polymer Brushes 809 26.12 Conclusions 810 References 810 27 From Star-Like to Dendrimer-Like Polymers 819 Daniel Taton 27.1 Introduction 819 27.2 Essential Features and Properties of Stars and Dendrimer-Like Polymers 820 27.3 General Methods for the Synthesis of Star Polymers 822 27.4 General Methods for the Synthesis of Dendrimer-Like Polymers 829 27.5 Conclusions 836 References 836 28 Two-Dimensional Polymers 841 Junji Sakamoto and A. Dieter Schluter 28.1 Introduction 841 28.2 Why 2-D Polymers? 841 28.3 What Is Not Considered a 2-D Polymer? 846 28.4 General Considerations on Rational 2-D Polymer Synthesis 852 28.5 Approaches to 2-D Polymers and Related Structures 856 28.6 Conclusions and Outlook 890 Abbreviations 890 References 891 29 Poly( para-Phenylene Vinylene)s 901 Nicole Vilbrandt, Serena Nickel, Stefan Immel, Matthias Rehahn, Katja Stegmaier, Christian Melzer, and Heinz von Seggern 29.1 Introduction 901 29.2 Step-Growth Syntheses of PPVs 902 29.3 Chain-Growth Syntheses of PPVs 902 29.4 Conclusions and Outlook 916 Acknowledgments 917 References 917 30 Click Chemistry in Polymer Science: CuAAC and Thiol Ene Coupling for the Synthesis and Functionalization of Macromolecules 923 Maxwell J. Robb and Craig J. Hawker 30.1 Introduction and Perspective 923 30.2 Polymers from Click Chemistry 926 30.3 Summary and Conclusions 964 References 965 31 Carbenes in Polymer Synthesis 973 Kyle A. Williams, Bethany M. Neilson, and Christopher W. Bielawski 31.1 Introduction to Carbenes 973 31.2 Carbenes as Structural Components of Macromolecules 975 31.3 Carbene-Based Polymerization Catalysts 991 31.4 Conclusions 1007 References 1007 32 Polymerization in Confined Geometries 1011 Takashi Uemura and Susumu Kitagawa 32.1 Introduction 1011 32.2 Polymer Synthesis in Organic Hosts 1011 32.3 Polymerization in Inorganic Hosts 1013 32.4 Polymer Synthesis in Organic Inorganic Hybrid Hosts 1017 32.5 Summary and Conclusions 1025 References 1025 33 Accelerated Approaches to Dendrimers 1027 Marie Valerie Walter and Michael Malkoch 33.1 Introduction 1027 33.2 Classification and Synthesis 1028 33.3 Accelerated Synthesis of Dendrimers 1030 33.4 Summary and Conclusions 1052 References 1052 34 Supramolecular Polymers 1057 Marko M. L. Nieuwenhuizen, Wilco P. J. Appel, and E. W. Meijer 34.1 Introduction 1057 34.2 Supramolecular Chemistry 1058 34.3 Supramolecular Polymerization Mechanisms 1060 34.4 Examples of Supramolecular Polymers 1061 34.5 Supramolecular Polymeric Materials 1077 34.6 Future Perspectives 1083 References 1085 35 Nucleic Acid Polymers and DNA Synthetic Polymer Hybrid Materials Generated by Molecular Biology Techniques 1089 Minseok Kwak and Andreas Herrmann 35.1 Introduction 1089 35.2 DNA Hydrogels Mediated by the Action of DNA Ligases 1091 35.3 DNA Block Copolymers and DNA Networks Generated by the Polymerase Chain Reaction 1093 35.4 Generating DNA Synthetic Polymer Hybrids with DNA Polymerases 1100 35.5 Plasmids and Catenated Nucleic Acid Architectures from Circular DNA Molecules 1104 35.6 Conclusions 1108 References 1110 36 Cyclodextrin-Based Polyrotaxanes 1113 Akira Harada and Hiroyasu Yamaguchi 36.1 Rotaxanes 1113 36.2 Polyrotaxanes 1113 36.3 Rotaxanes Containing CDs 1113 36.4 Polyrotaxanes Containing CDs 1114 36.5 Formation of Gel by Mixing Host Polymers and Guest Polymers 1126 36.6 Tubular Polymers 1126 References 1126 37 Dendronized Polymers: An Approach to Single Molecular Objects 1131 Anzar Khan, Baozhong Zhang, and A. Dieter Schluter 37.1 Introduction 1131 37.2 Synthesis 1133 37.3 Quantification of Thickness 1150 37.4 Responsivity of Dendronized Polymers 1150 37.5 Manipulation on Surfaces and Building Objects 1154 37.6 Conclusions 1156 Acknowledgments 1157 List of Symbols and Abbreviations 1157 References 1158 Index 1161

Product Details

  • ISBN13: 9783527327577
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 1184
  • ID: 9783527327577
  • weight: 2564
  • ISBN10: 3527327576

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