The self-assembly of synthetic surfactants and other non-phospholipids into vesicles was first studied in the 1970s by cosmetic scientists when non-ionic surfactant vesicles or niosomes were reported. Since this time a large body of research has sought to define these systems primarily as drug carriers and also as features of interest to the colloid scientist. Synthetic surfactant vesicles, as the name implies, may also be fabricated from a vast array of amphiphiles, including a number of pharmaceutically acceptable materials. They may also be prepared in a variety of shapes and sizes and have a number of applications. This book is designed to serve as an introductory text to the science of non-phospholipid vesicles and will be of use to colloid, drug delivery, cosmetic, and materials scientists. It aims to acquaint the reader with the physicochemistry and biomedical applications of these synthetic surfactant non-phospholipid vesicles. Part one introduces the reader to physicochemical aspects of these synthetic surfactant dispersions and explores the diversity of materials that may be used to formulate vesicles. Part two details methods of vesicle preparation and the application of synthetic surfactant vesicles in a variety of fields ranging from anti-cancer chemotherapy to immunization.
Part One: Non-phospholipid Vesicles: Birth or Rebirth? 1. Molecular Modelling of Surfactant Vesicles 2. Rheology of Niosome Dispersions 3. Non-ionic Surfactant Vesicle to Micelle Transitions 4. Proniosomes 5. Non-ionic Surfactant Vesicles for the Treatment of Visceral Leishmaniasis Part Two: Niosomes and Other Synthetic Surfactant Vesicles with Anti-tumour Drugs 1. Polymer Drug Conjugates in Niosomes 2. Transdermal Drug Delivery with Niosomes 3. Niosomes as Immunological Adjuvants 4. Non-ionic Surfactant-based Organogels Containing Niosomes: Microstructure and Potential as Immunoadjuvants 5. DTPA Niosomes in Diagnostic Imaging