This book applies systems biology methods to analyze Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), providing a comprehensive resource for modernization of TCM research and drug discovery. Using three popular Chinese medicines - Shuanglongfang, Qingkailing, and Liushenwan - as examples, the author illustrates how to find material groups, perform efficacy screening, and conduct safety evaluations of TCM. In addition, the coverage describes TCM in terms of chemomics, genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics. By putting modern scientific technologies in the context of TCM, this resource helps scientists and TCM practitioners improve experimental designs and strategies, and better communicate.
GUOAN LUO is Professor in the Institute of Biomedicine and Director of the Modern Research Center for Traditional Chinese Medicine at Tsinghua University in Beijing. Professor Luo is dedicated to the application of systems biology to study and advance TCM. He has published more than 680 peer-reviewed papers and applied for thirty-one patents. Among the many honors he has received for his research achievements are two National Scientific and Technological Advancement Prizes. YIMING WANG is Professor at Tsinghua University. QIONGLIN LIANG is Associate Professor at Tsinghua University. QINGFEI LIU is Assistant Professor at Tsinghua University.
FOREWORD ix PREFACE xiii ABBREVIATIONS xvii 1 INTRODUCTION OF SYSTEMS BIOLOGY IN TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE (TCM) 1 1.1 Characteristics and Compatibility Principles of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) 1 1.2 Key Scientifi c Issues in TCM Modernization 9 1.3 Development of Systems Biology 16 1.4 Chemomics Integrated Systems Biology 19 1.5 Research Strategy and Prospective of Systems Biology in TCM 25 References 34 2 CHEMOMICS OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE 38 2.1 Characteristics and Research Diffi culties in TCM 39 2.2 Background of TCM Chemomics Proposal and Development 45 2.3 Chemomics 52 2.4 Chemomics and the Research of Formulas 58 References 63 3 TECHNOLOGICAL PLATFORM OF TCM CHEMOMICS 66 3.1 Acquisition Methods and Techniques for TCM Chemomics 66 3.2 Characterization Techniques of Chemome-TCM Fingerprinting 73 3.3 Information Processing for the Study of TCM Chemomics 107 3.4 Development of an Intelligent Quality Control System in the Process of Chinese Medicine Production 119 References 127 4 PHARMACOKINETIC INVESTIGATION ON TCM FORMULAS BASED ON GLOBAL SYSTEMS BIOLOGY 131 4.1 Pharmacokinetic Characteristics of TCM Formulas 131 4.2 Methodology of Pharmacokinetics of TCM Formulas 133 4.3 Application of PK-PD Model in the Toxicological Research of Liushen Pills (LSP) 138 4.4 Prospect 143 References 144 5 APPLICATION OF GENOMICS IN THE RESEARCH OF TCM 146 5.1 Genomics and TCM System Research 146 5.2 Prospect of Genomics in TCM Research 148 5.3 Cases of the Application of Genomics in TCM Research 148 References 168 6 PROTEOMICS STUDY OF TCM 171 6.1 Proteomics in TCM Research 171 6.2 A Case Study of Proteomics in TCM 174 6.3 The Application of High Content Screening in TCM Research 182 6.4 Limitations and Prospect of TCM Proteomics 186 References 187 7 APPLICATION OF METABONOMICS IN RESEARCH ON TCM 191 7.1 Current Research Situation of Metabonomics 191 7.2 Integration of Quantitative Metabonomics Platform Technology (QMPT) 191 7.3 Application of Metabonomics in the Field of Medicine 194 7.4 Examples of Metabonomic Research on TCM 198 References 206 8 APPLICATION OF CHEMOMETRICS AND BIOINFORMATICS IN TCM RESEARCH 210 8.1 Introduction of Chemometrics 210 8.2 Chemometric Techniques and Their Applications in TCM Research 211 8.3 Introduction of Bioinformatics 216 8.4 Bioinformatics Techniques and Their Applications in the Research of TCM 219 8.5 Conclusions 222 References 224 9 STUDY OF INTEGRATED BIOMARKER SYSTEM OF DIABETIC NEPHROPATHY 228 9.1 Introduction of Diabetic Nephropathy 228 9.2 Mogensen Staging and TCM Typing of DN 234 9.3 The Metabonomics Study of DN 244 9.4 Condition of Metabolism after Treatment with TangShen Formula (TSF) 278 9.5 Genomics Study of Diabetic Neuropathy 286 9.6 The Integrated Biomarker System of DN 301 9.7 Conclusions 311 References 312 10 CHEMOMICS RESEARCH ON THE TCM FORMULA OF THE QINGKAILING INJECTION 317 10.1 Chemomics Research of Qingkailing Injection 318 10.2 Pharmacodynamic Evaluation of Qingkailing Injection 330 10.3 Research on the Qingkailing Derived Formula 335 10.4 Conclusions 368 References 369 11 INTEGRATED GLOBAL SYSTEMS BIOLOGY FOR THE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT OF CHINESE MEDICINE SHUANGLONG FORMULA 371 11.1 Brief Introduction to the Shuanglong Formula 371 11.2 Chemomics Study of the Shuanglong Formula 374 11.3 Pharmacodynamic Evaluation of SLF Effective Ingredients 384 11.4 Systems Biology Study of the Mechanism of Directed Differentiation of Stem Cells Induced by NSLF6 402 11.5 Anti-Myocardial Infarction Effect of NSLF6 426 11.6 Conclusions 429 References 430 12 DEMONSTRATIVE RESEARCH ON THE SAFETY EVALUATION OF LIUSHEN PILLS 437 12.1 Introduction 437 12.2 Toxicity Study of Chansu 438 12.3 Chemomics Study of LSP 446 12.4 Assessment of Effectiveness and Safety of LSP 457 12.5 In Vivo Distribution and Metabonomics of LSP and Xionghuang 462 12.6 Metabonomic Research of LSP 467 12.7 Conclusions 477 References 478 INDEX 481