Tainted: How Philosophy of Science Can Expose Bad Science (ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS AND SCIENCE POLICY SERIES)

Tainted: How Philosophy of Science Can Expose Bad Science (ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS AND SCIENCE POLICY SERIES)

By: Kristin Shrader-Frechette (author)Hardback

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Description

Three-fourths of scientific research in the United States is funded by special interests. Many of these groups have specific practical goals, such as developing pharmaceuticals or establishing that a pollutant causes only minimal harm. For groups with financial conflicts of interest, their scientific findings often can be deeply flawed. To uncover and assess these scientific flaws, award-winning biologist and philosopher of science Kristin Shrader-Frechette uses the analytical tools of classic philosophy of science. She identifies and evaluates the concepts, data, inferences, methods, models, and conclusions of science tainted by the influence of special interests. As a result, she challenges accepted scientific findings regarding risks such as chemical toxins and carcinogens, ionizing radiation, pesticides, hazardous-waste disposal, development of environmentally sensitive lands, threats to endangered species, and less-protective standards for workplace-pollution exposure. In so doing, she dissects the science on which many contemporary scientific controversies turn. Demonstrating and advocating "liberation science," she shows how practical, logical, methodological, and ethical evaluations of science can both improve its quality and credibility - and protect people from harm caused by flawed science, such as underestimates of cancers caused by bovine growth hormones, cell phones, fracking, or high-voltage wires. This book is both an in-depth look at the unreliable scientific findings at the root of contemporary debates in biochemistry, ecology, economics, hydrogeology, physics, and zoology - and a call to action for scientists, philosophers of science, and all citizens.

About Author

Kristin Shrader-Frechette is O'Neill Professor at University of Notre Dame, where she teaches biological sciences, environmental sciences, and philosophy of science. With degrees in mathematics and in philosophy of science, she has done three post-docs - in biology, economics, and hydrogeology - and served on many boards/committees of the US National Academy of Sciences and international scientific or environmental groups. The first female president of 3 professional scientific associations, she has had her scientific research (on quantitative risk assessment in radiobiology, biostatistics, and energy modeling) funded for 27 years by the US National Science Foundation. Author of more than 400 articles and 16 books, including Taking Action, Saving Lives (2007, Oxford University).

Contents

Chapter 1: Speaking Truth to Power: Uncovering Flawed Methods, Protecting Lives and Welfare ; Section 1: Conceptual and Logical Analysis ; Chapter 2: Discovering Dump Dangers: Unearthing Hazards in Hydrogeology ; Chapter 3: Hormesis Harms: The Emperor Has No Biochemistry Clothes ; Chapter 4: Trading Lives for Money: Compensating Wage Differentials in Economics ; Section 2: Heuristic Analysis and Developing Hypotheses ; Chapter 5: Learning from Analogy: Extrapolating from Animal Data in Toxicology ; Chapter 6: Conjectures and Conflict: A Thought Experiment in Physics ; Chapter 7: Being a Disease Detective: Discovering Causes in Epidemiology ; Chapter 8: Why Statistics Is Slippery: Easy Algorithms Fail in Biology ; Section 3: Methodological Analysis and Justifying Hypotheses ; Chapter 9: Releasing Radioactivity: Hypothesis-Prediction in Hydrogeology ; Chapter 10: Protecting Florida Panthers: Historical-Comparativist Methods in Zoology ; Chapter 11: Cracking Case Studies: Why They Work in Sciences Such As Ecology ; Chapter 12: Uncovering Cover-up: Inference to the Best Explanation in Medicine ; Section 4: Values Analysis and Scientific Uncertainty ; Chapter 13: Value Judgments Can Kill: Expected-Utility Rules in Decision Theory ; Chapter 14: Understanding Uncertainty: False Negatives in Quantitative Risk Analysis ; Chapter 15: Where We Go from Here: Making Philosophy of Science Practical

Product Details

  • ISBN13: 9780199396412
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 312
  • ID: 9780199396412
  • weight: 548
  • ISBN10: 0199396418

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