Psychoanalysis has had to defend itself from a barrage of criticism throughout its history. Nevertheless, there are many who claim to have been helped by this therapy, and who claim to have achieved genuine insight into their condition. But do the psychodynamic or exploratory psychotherapies - the so-called talking cures - really help clients get in touch with their "inner", "real" or "true" selves? Do clients make important discoveries about the real causes of their
behaviours, emotions, and personalities? Are their insights, and the psychodynamic interpretations offered them by their psychotherapists, true? Many think so.
Talking Cures and Placebo Effects contests this view. It defends the unpopular hypothesis that therapeutic changes in the psychodynamic psychotherapies are sometimes functions of powerful placebos that rally the mind's native healing powers in much the same way that placebo pills rally the body's native healing powers; and that psychodynamic insights and interpretations are themselves placebos. Few clients know this, and fewer still are informed of the potential placebo effects at play
in exploratory psychotherapy, and of the consequent risks of self-misinterpretation and self-deception. Thus does Talking Cures and Placebo Effects target a host of problems that lie at the very intersection of the epistemology, ethics, scientific status, and public accountability of the talking
David A. Jopling is Associate Professor in the Department of Philosophy at York University, in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. His research interests include the philosophy of psychology and psychiatry, early modern philosophy, and cognitive science. He has published books and articles on the concept of self, self-knowledge, phenomenology, and cognitive science.
1. Placebos and psychotherapy ; 2. Kinds of insight ; 3. The standard view ; 4. Placebos and placebo effects ; 5. Insight placebos ; 6. Placebos, deception and self-deception ; 7. Conclusion