Target Pattern Recognition in Innate Immunity (Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 653 2009 ed.)

Target Pattern Recognition in Innate Immunity (Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 653 2009 ed.)

By: Uday Kishore (editor)Hardback

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Description

Target pattern recognition in innate immunity is responsible for the immediate, usually protective, responses shown against invading microorganisms, and it is the principal feature of self and non-self recognition by virtue of the recognition of structures on the microbial pathogens, which are not found on host cells. This is an area that has been very actively researched, over approximately the past 12 years, and therefore this volume provides a timely comprehensive, and up to date, summary of the types and range of cell surface, intracellular, and secreted, host proteins involved in the recognition of microbial products, and of the protective mechanisms triggered as a result of the recognition events. The Toll-like receptors, first described in Drosophila and now well-characterised on human cells, provide an excellent demonstration of the wide range of different microbial products recognised by this family of receptors and of the signalling pathways which are triggered thus leading to induction of inflammatory cytokines and the activation of genes producing antimicrobial products. In addition, several cell surface proteins involved in target pattern recognition have been described on the surfaces of macrophages (macrophage mannose receptor and macrophage scavenger receptors), and on dendritic cells (DEC205), and to be involved with the uptake and clearance of whole microorganisms and polyanioic ligands. Pattern recognition is also utilised by intracellular receptors, with NOD-like receptors in the cytosol recognizing microbial molecules and activating the production of inflammatory cytokines or pathways that induce the production of inflammatory molecules. Secreted proteins, such as the pentraxins, which includes the acute phase reacting, C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid protein (SAP), and the collectins (mannan binding lectin, lung surfactant protein A and D) and ficolins can also readily recruit killing and clearance systems. Indeed, the serum complement system, which is one of the major defence systems in the bloodstream, is efficiently activated by CR P on its binding to the phosphocholine groups of microbial phospholipids-and the subsequent interaction of the bound CR P with C1q-to give classical pathway activation, or MBL, or ficolin, binding to arrays of mannose or N-acetyl-glucosamine residues, respectively, on the surfaces of microorganisms-to give lectin pathway activation. Also, in addition to the activation and clearance events associated with complement activation by some of the secreted pattern recognition receptors, it is accepted that all these pattern recognition receptors can generally accelerate the uptake and clearance of microbes via phagocytic cells. In view of the growing interest in the cross-talk between innate and adaptive immunity, a thorough understanding of the initial recognition and triggering events, mediated via innate immune receptors, as addressed in this volume, is clearly very useful in helping to also fully understand the mechanisms of activation and control of the adaptive immune system-and to allow a full assessment of the relative roles played by innate immunity and adaptive immunity against a particular infection in higher organisms.

About Author

Dr. Uday Kishore is currently a University Lecturer in Immunology and Medical Microbiology at Division of Biosciences within School of Health Sciences and Social Care, Brunel University, London, UK. He earned his BSc from S.P. Jain College, Sasaram, Bihar, India and MSc from Hindu College and Department of Zoology, Delhi University. He did his PhD on gene synthesis and expression of human EGF jointly from CSIR Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology, Delhi and University of Delhi. He spent most of his postdoctoral time working at MRC Immunochemistry Unit and Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford funded by Wellcome Trust, Medical Research Council and European Commission. He has also been recipient of NASA fellowship (Salk Institute for Biological Studies, San Diego, USA), Wellcome Trust International fellowship (Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics, Oxford), MRC Inventor's award, and Alexander von Humboldt fellowship (Institute of Medical Microbiology, Giessen, Germany (2004)). Dr. Kishore's research interests include structure-function relationships within human C1q, the first subcomponent of classical complement pathway, role of hydrophilic lung surfactant proteins in modulating allergy and infection, host-pathogen interaction involving an opportunistic fungal pathogen, Aspergillus fumigatus, and generation of therapeutic inhibitors of complement cascade. Dr. Kishore's hobbies include singing Indian classical and light music.

Contents

1. Macrophage Pattern Recognition Receptors in Immunity, Homeostasis and Self Tolerance Subhankar Mukhopadhyay, Annette Pluddemann, and Siamon Gordon Abstract Introduction The Scavenger Receptor Family Class A Scavenger Receptors SR-A (SR-AI/II) MARCO SRCL-I/ CLP-I C-Type Lectin Receptors C-Type Lectins with a Single CRD C-Type Lectins with Multiple CRDs NK-Like C-Type Lectin-Like Receptors Self Tolerance in Innate Immunity Conclusion 2. Pattern Recognition by Toll-Like Receptors Stefan Bauer, Thomas Muller, and Svetlana Hamm Abstract Introduction Toll-Like Receptors and Their Ligands Bacterial Recognition by TLRs Viral Recognition by TLRs Recognition of Fungi and Protozoan Parasites by TLRs Cellular Localization of TLRs Recognition of Endogenous Ligands by TLRs and Involvement in Autoimmunity TLR Signaling Interferon Production by TLRs TLR Structure TLR Expression in Cells of the Adaptive Immune System Conclusion 3. NOD-Like Receptors-Pivotal Guardians of the Immunological Integrity of Barier Organs Philip Rosenstiel and Stefan Schreiber Abstract Introduction NOD-Like Receptors-Phylogenetically Ancient Molecular Platforms of the Innate Immune System Modular Domain Structure NLRs and the Recent Rise of Barrier Diseases Plasticity of NLR Function Conclusions 4. Toll-Like Receptors and NOD-Like Receptors: Domain Architecture and Cellular Signalling Tanja Langefeld, Walid Mohamed, Rohit Ghai, and Trinad Chakraborty Abstract Introduction Toll-Like Receptors Myd88 Dependent TLR Signalling Myd88 Independent TLR Signalling Nod-Like Receptors Conclusions 5. Humoral Pattern Recognition Molecules: Mannan-Binding Lectin and Ficolins Steffen Thiel and Mihaela Gadjeva Abstract Introduction Biochemistry Biology Conclusion 6. Lung Surfactant Proteins A and D asPattern Recognition Proteins Patrick Waters, Mudit Vaid, Uday Kishore, and Taruna Madan Abstract Introduction Collectin Structure Overview N-Terminal Region Collagen Region Neck Region Carbohydrate Recognition Domain (CRD) SP-A and SP-D Bind Lipid via Their CRDs Calcium Ions Are Required for CRD Function Factors Affecting Interaction with Polysaccharides Directing the Immune Response Specific Examples of SP-A and SP-D as PRRs Fungus and Yeast Viruses SP-A and SP-D in Protection against Allergens and Pulmonary Hypersensitivity Phenotype and Susceptibility of SP-A and SP-D Gene Deficient Mice Conclusion 7. Pattern Recognition by Pentraxins Alok Agrawal, Prem Prakash Singh, Barbara Bottazzi, Cecilia Garlanda, and Alberto Mantovani Abstract Pentraxins Short Pentraxins: CRP and SAP Long Pentraxin: PTX3 Conclusions 8. Target Pattern Recognition by Complement Proteins of the Classical and Alternative Pathways Yu-Hoi Kang, Lee Aun Tan, Maria V. Carroll, Madeleine E. Gentle, and Robert B. Sim Abstract The Complement System C1q and C1 Structure Biosynthesis of C1q Target Recognition by C1q Structural Basis of C1q Binding to Targets C1q Receptors C1q across the Animal Kingdom Properdin and the Alternative Pathway 9. Pattern Recognition in Phagocytic Clearance of Altered Self Yoshinobu Nakanishi, Peter M. Henson, and Akiko Shiratsuchi Abstract Roles and Mechanisms of Phagocytosis Recognition of Altered Self by Phagocytes Consequences of Phagocytic Clearance of Apoptotic Cells Fate of Necrotic Cells or Cells Dying by Other Modes Concluding Remarks 10. Structural Basis of Pattern Recognition by Innate Immune Molecules Eamon P. McGreal Abstract Introduction Molecules Containing Leucine Rich Repeats (LRRs) Carbohydrate Recognition by C-Type Lectin and C-Type Lectin-Like Molecules Eme

Product Details

  • ISBN13: 9781441909008
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 202
  • ID: 9781441909008
  • ISBN10: 1441909001
  • edition: 2009 ed.

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