Language and culture are concepts increasingly found at the heart of developments in applied linguistics and related fields. Taken together, they can provide interesting and useful insights into the nature of language acquisition and expression. In this volume, Joan Kelly Hall gives a perspective on the nature of language and culture looking at how the use of language in real-world situations helps us understand how language is used to construct our social and cultural worlds.The conceptual maps on the nature of language, culture and learning provided in this text help orient readers to some current theoretical and practical activities taking place in applied linguistics. They also help them begin to chart their own explorations in the teaching and researching of language and culture.
Joan Kelly Hall is Professor of Applied Linguistics in the Department of Applied Linguistics at the Pennsylvania State University. Her recent books include Interactional Competence and Development (with J. Hellermann and S. Pekarek Doehler, 2011) and Dialogue with Bakhtin on Second and Foreign Language Learning(with G. Vitanova and L. Marchenkova, 2003).
INTRODUCTION SECTION 1 DEFINING LANGUAGE AND CULTURE Chapter One A sociocultural perspective on language and culture 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Language as sociocultural resource 1.2.1 Dialogue as the essence of language use 1.2.2 Single- and double-voiced utterances 1.3 Culture as sociocultural practice 1.4 Linguistic relativity 1.5 A socially constituted linguistics 1.5.1 A socially constituted approach to the study of language and culture 1.5.2 The recent turn in studies of communicative activities 1.5.3 From linguistic relativity to sociolinguistic relativity 1.6 Systemic functional linguistics 1.7 Summary Further reading Chapter Two Language and identity 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Social identity 2.2.1 Contextual relevancy of social identity 2.3 Agency, identity and language use 2.3.1 Giddens' theory of structuration 2.3.2 Bourdieu's notion of habitus 2.4 Research on language use and identity 2.4.1 Interactional sociolinguistics 2.4.2 Co-construction of identity 2.5 Summary Further reading Chapter Three Language-and-culture learning 3.1 Introduction 3.2 A sociocultural perspective on language and culture learning 3.2.1 Mediational means 3.3 Language socialisation 3.4 Learning how to mean 3.5 Social activity and language development 3.6 Social activity and cognitive development 3.7 Contexts of learning 3.7.1 Language classrooms as fundamental sites of learning 3.7.2 Learning beyond the traditional classroom 3.7.3 The effects of globalization on sites of learning 3.8 Summary Further reading SECTION 2 TEACHING LANGUAGE AND CULTURE Chapter Four The sociocultural worlds of learners 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Language socialisation practices: Home and school connections 4.3 Language variation 4.4 Redesigning curriculum and instruction 4.4.1 Culturally responsive educational programmes 4.4.2 Funds of knowledge 4.4.3 Language awareness curricula 4.5 Summary Further reading Chapter Five Language and culture of the classroom 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Schools and classrooms as sociocultural communities 5.3 The role of classroom discourse 5.3.1 The The dominant pattern of interaction in classrooms 5.3.2 Changes in the third-turn that enhance learning opportunities 5.3.3 Social dimensions of classroom discourse 5.4 Redesigning curriculum and instruction 5.4.1 Communities of learners 220.127.116.11 Communities of practice 18.104.22.168 Key design principles in creating a community of learners 22.214.171.124 Classrooms as communities of inquiry 5.4.2 Cooperative learning practices 126.96.36.199 Components of cooperative learning practices 5.5 Summary Further reading Chapter Six Language and culture as curricular content 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Defining knowledge of language and culture 6.2.1 Communicative competence 6.2.2 Interactional competence 6.2.3 Communicative competence revisited 6.2.4 Intercultural communicative competence 6.2.5 Learning outcomes: Where are we going? 6.3 Pedagogical approaches for redesigning language classrooms 6.3.1 Critical pedagogy 188.8.131.52Problem-posing approach 6.3.2 Project-based learning 184.108.40.206 Pragmatic ethnography 6.3.3 The multiliteracies project 220.127.116.11 Genre-based pedagogy 6.4 Summary Further reading SECTION 3 RESEARCHING LANGUAGE AND CULTURE Chapter Seven The research enterprise 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Foundations of research on language and culture from a sociocultural perspective 7.3. Methodological considerations 7.3.1 Choice of methods 7.3.2 Transcription issues 7.4 Negotiating relationships 7.5 Research ethics 7.6 Summary Further reading Chapter Eight Approaches to research on language and Culture 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Ethnography of communication 8.3 Interactional sociolinguistics 8.4 Conversation analysis 8.5 Discourse analysis 8.6 Systemic functional linguistics 8.7 Critical discourse analysis 8.8 Linguistic ethnography 8.9 Microgenetic approach 8.10 Summary Chapter Nine Guidelines for doing research 9.1 Introduction 9.2 The research cycle 9.2.1 Identifying concerns and developing research questions 18.104.22.168 Negotiating access and relationships 9.2.2 Identifying research approach and sources of data 22.214.171.124 (Participant) observations and fieldnotes 126.96.36.199 Video-recordingsand other visual materials 188.8.131.52 Interviews and questionnaires 184.108.40.206 Focus groups 220.127.116.11 Verbal protocols 18.104.22.168 Personal reflection journals 22.214.171.124 Archives and other documents 9.2.3 Collecting data 9.2.4 Analysing the data 9.2.5 Reflecting on the findings 9.2.6 Sharing findings and taking action where appropriate 9.3 Summary Further reading Chapter Ten Contexts of research 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Contexts of research 10.2.1 Macro social structures 10.2.1.1 Suggestions for research projects 10.2.2 Institutional contexts 10.2.2.1 Suggestions for research projects 10.2.3 Communicative activities 10.2.3.1 Suggestions for research projects 10.2.4 Individual experiences 10.2.4.1 Suggestions for research projects 10.3 Summary Chapter Eleven Resources for teaching and researching language and culture 11.1 Introduction 11.2 Journals 11.3 Professional organizations 11.4 Web-based resources Glossary References