Using a framework based on principles of teaching and learning, this guide for teachers and teacher trainees provides a wealth of suggestions for helping learners at all levels of proficiency develop their listening and speaking skills and fluency. By following these suggestions, which are organized around four strands - meaning-focused input, meaning-focused output, language-focused learning, and fluency development - teachers will be able to design and present a balanced program for their students.
Teaching ESL/EFL Listening and Speaking, and its companion text, Teaching ESL/EFL Reading and Writing, are similar in format and the kinds of topics covered, but do not need to be used together. Drawing on research and theory in applied linguistics, their focus is strongly hands-on, featuring
easily applied principles,
a large number of useful teaching techniques, and
guidelines for testing and monitoring.
All Certificate, Diploma, Masters and Doctoral courses for teachers of English as a second or foreign language include a teaching methods component. The texts are designed for and have been field tested in such programs.
I.S.P. Nation is Professor of Applied Linguistics in the School of Linguistics and Applied Language Studies at Victoria University in Wellington, New Zealand. Jonathan Newton is a senior lecturer in the School of Linguistics and Applied Language Studies, Victoria University in Wellington, New Zealand.
@contents: Selected Contents: Chapter 1 Parts and goals of a listening and speaking course The four strands A commonsense justification of the four strands Learning through listening and reading Learning through speaking and writing Language-focused learning Becoming fluent in listening, speaking, reading and writing Balancing the four strands Integrating the four strands Principles and the four strands Learning goals Chapter 2 Beginning to listen and speak in another language What should they learn? How should the teaching and learning be done? Practising sentence patterns Guiding listening and speaking Techniques for early meaning-focused speaking Planning a listening and speaking programme for beginners Chapter 3 Listening Listening and language learning Advanced listening: Notetaking How to take notes Learning how to take notes Monitoring notetaking Monitoring meaning focused listening Chapter 4 Learning through interaction and negotiation Encouraging negotiation Using written input to encourage negotiation Using information distribution to encourage negotiation Factors affecting the amount and type of negotiation Using learner training to encourage negotiation Monitoring negotiation Learning through non-negotiated interaction Understanding language teaching tasks: Ranking What is a ranking task? Method steps What can you use ranking tasks for? How can you make and prepare for ranking tasks? What material can you base ranking tasks on? Monitoring a ranking task Monitoring learners beginning to speak Chapter 5 Learning through pushed output Pushed output Pushing output Formal speaking The nature of formal speaking Teaching formal speaking A process approach to formal speaking Guidelines for presenting a formal talk Chapter 6 Pronunciation The place of form focused pronunciation instruction Factors affecting the learning of another sound system Procedures and techniques Fitting pronunciation into a course Monitoring pronunciation Chapter 7 Deliberate teaching The value and limits of language-focused learning Deliberate vocabulary learning The requirements of language-focused vocabulary instruction Techniques and procedures Deliberate grammar learning The causes of error The effect of correction Correction procedures Fitting language-focused learning into a course Chapter 8 Dictation and related activities Dictation Pre-dictation exercises Variations of dictation Related techniques Monitoring dictation Dicto-comp Related techniques Chapter 9 Developing fluency The nature of fluency Fluency and accuracy Developing fluency Designing fluency activities Fitting fluency into a course Developing fluency in listening and speaking Techniques for developing fluency in listening Techniques for developing fluency in speaking Monitoring fluency tasks Chapter 10 Testing Monitoring progress Testing listening and speaking Listening tests Speaking tests Appendix 1 The survival syllabus Appendix 2 The most useful words for beginning graded reading Appendix 3 Topic types Appendix 4 Topics for listening and speaking