Unlike a studio production, many factors can adversely affect your television sports shoot including weather, lighting, and natural sound. A successful shoot is dependent on extensive planning, careful budgetting, technology, location, and a thorough understanding of the intricacies of the sport itself. With so much at stake, why not learn from an expert?
In Television Sports Production, Fifth Edition Jim Owens walks you through the planning, set-up, directing, announcing, shooting, and editing involved with covering a sports event. This manual gives you the tools to effectively cover sports ranging such as football, soccer, and basketball. Tips and advice on using mobile units, cameras, audio equipment, and lighting rigs will enable you to produce live or recorded coverage like an expert and capture professional-quality footage on the first take. After all, there are no instant replays!
This new edition has been updated to include:
Techniques used by producers to capture the essence of individual
Tips on shooting in 3D, 5D, 4k and 8K
Coverage using surround sound and the second screen
Extras such as camera and microphone diagrams and an easy-reference glossary
Author Biography Jim Owens has worked and taught in the video and television industry for over 30 years. His international television work has included fourteen Olympic broadcasts and has taken him to over thirty countries. He is the author of the Video Production Handbook, Television Production, and Television Sports Production and has had over thirty articles published in television and broadcast magazines in the United States and Europe. Owens is Dean of the School of Communication Arts at Asbury University in Wilmore, Kentucky, where he has taught since 1981.
CONTENTS Foreword xi Acknowledgments xiii Preface 1 PART 1 INTRODUCTION TO REMOTE PRODUCTION 5 Chapter 1 What Is Remote Production? 7 Live-to-Tape 8 Remote versus Studio Production 8 Chapter 2 Personnel 9 Personnel Descriptions 9 Freelance Personnel 17 Chapter 3 What is Television 21 Defining Television Multiplatform Television 23 Platform Integration 25 How is Television Changing 26 Television Formats 26 High Definition Television 3D Television 4K Television 8K Television Future Television 4-8K 3D Holograms 26 Chapter 4 The Second Screen & Social Media What Makes a Good Second Screen 29 Partnerships are Paramount: Case Studies Social Media Balancing the Budget 29 Chapter 5 The Mobile Production Unit 27 The Remote Truck Mobile Unit 29 Inside a Remote Truck Production Area in a Remote Truck 29 Audio Area 30 Record/Videotape Area 30 Video Control Area IT Structure 31 Outside the Remote Truck The Compound 31 Virtual Remote Productions 31 The Flypack 32 All-in-One Mobile Production Unit 34 Complex All-in-One Production Unit Computer Based Mobile Production Unit Communication Devices 37 PART 2 PLANNING 39 Chapter 6 Planning the Production 41 Coordination Meetings 42 Remote Surveys 43 The Contacts 44 Venue Access 44 Location Costs 46 Electrical Power Other Areas for Survey Consideration 46 Program Transmission 46 Other Areas that Significantly Impact the Survey 47 Location Sketch 81 Backup Plans 81 Chapter 7 Cameras Camera Placement Types of Cameras Why POV/Robotic Cameras Camera Set-up Checklist Camera Shots Camera Movement Camera/Lens Moves Shooting Sports Composition Caring for the Camera Chapter 8 Lighting Indoor Venue Outdoor Venue Other Lighting Concerns Chapter 9 Audio Production Stereo Audio for Television Basic 5.1 Surround Sound Audio Levels Microphone Pick-up Patterns Microphone Sound Generating Elements Types of Microphones Phantom Power Microphone Accessories Microphone Placement Gamestime Audio Communications (Intercom) Systems Prerecorded Audio Chapter 10: Graphics Television Graphics Goals Tips on Making Great TV Graphics Viewer Enhancement Tools The FoxTrax Virtual Information Graphics Virtual Ads RACEf/x Transposition Replay Systems StroMotion Chapter 11: Pre-production and Set-up 85 Production Meetings 85 The Show Format 85 Equipment Set-up 86 Cabling 88 Camera Meetings 91 Facilities Check 92 Schedule 97 Rehearsals 97 PART 3 CREATING THE PRODUCTION 99 Chapter 12 The Production 101 Producing the Remote 101 Directing the Remote 102 Types of Sports Action 102 Action Flow 102 Stop-and-Go Sports 102 Directing Stop-and-Go Action 103 Directing Emphasis on Scoring 104 Pumping 104 Continuous Action Sports 105 Camera Action Tends to Be Rapid 107 Increase in Shot Size 108 Camera Changes During Action 108 Team and Individual Sports 108 Team Sports 108 Individual Sports 108 Building Emotional Involvement 109 Dealing with the Dominant Player 109 Limited Space for Coverage 110 Horizontal versus Vertical versus Circular Action 10 Horizontal Action 110 Vertical Action 111 Circular Action 111 Combinations 111 Coverage Design 112 Follow-the-Bouncing-Ball 112 Needs of the Audience 112 Directing Style 113 Facilities and Coverage 114 Directing Cameras 114 Assigning Cameras 114 Camera Initiative 116 Directing Replays 116 Directing Graphics 117 Shading 126 The Crew 133 Chapter 13: Directing: Telling the Story Understanding Story "We Are Going to Add Show Business to Television Sports" The Sports Director's Role as a Storyteller Homework Storytelling The Viewer's Position Equipment Enhancement Directing is Like Conducting a Symphony Chapter 14 Sports Announcing 135 Play-by-Play Sportscast Training 135 Research Television Announcer Sports Cliches Announcers and the Broadcast Booth 135 Interviews Doing the Interview 139 Go Beyond the Obvious 140 Spotters 141 Chapter 15 Post-production 143 Editing Guidelines 146 Chapter 16 Production Safety 147 Trips & Slips 147 Weight 148 Hearing 148 Electrical Power 148 Cables 149 Weather 149 Heights 150 Hazardous Areas 150 Chapter 17 Budgeting for the Remote Budgeting Case Study Equipment Rental Crew Costs Operational Costs PART 4 HISTORY OF SPORTS TELEVISION 153 Chapter 11 Milestones in Sports Broadcasting 155 Appendix I Truck Diagrams 161 Appendix II Camera Placement Diagrams 167 Baseball: Small Production Baseball: Large Production Basketball: Small Production Basketball: Large Production Boxing Football (American) Shooting Soccer/Football: Small Production Soccer/Football: Large Production Swimming Tennis: Small Production Tennis: Large Production Volleyball: Small Production Volleyball: Large Production Appendix III Microphone Placement Diagrams 197 Baseball: Audio Diagram Basketball: Audio Diagram Soccer/Football: Audio Diagram Tennis: Audio Diagram Appendix IV Event Storyboards 233 Opening Ceremony XIX Olympic Winter Games Appendix V Sports Announcing Article 241 Glossary 261 Index 275