This book provides a consistent scientific background to engineering calculation methods applicable to analyses of materials reaction-to-fire, as well as fire resistance of structures. Several new and unique formulas and diagrams which facilitate calculations are presented. It focuses on problems involving high temperature conditions and, in particular, defines boundary conditions in a suitable way for calculations. A large portion of the book is devoted to boundary conditions and measurements of thermal exposure by radiation and convection. The concepts and theories of adiabatic surface temperature and measurements of temperature with plate thermometers are thoroughly explained.Also presented is a renewed method for modeling compartment fires, with the resulting simple and accurate prediction tools for both pre- and post-flashover fires. The final chapters deal with temperature calculations in steel, concrete and timber structures exposed to standard time-temperature fire curves. Useful temperature calculation tools are included, and several examples demonstrate how the finite element code TASEF can be used to calculate temperature in various configurations. Temperature Calculation in Fire Safety Engineering is intended for researchers, students, teachers, and consultants in fire safety engineering. It is also suitable for others interested in analyzing and understanding fire, fire dynamics, and temperature development. Review questions and exercises are provided for instructor use.
Ulf Wickstroem is a professor at the Lulea University of Technology, Lulea, Sweden. He was the director of the fire research laboratory of SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden between 1986 and 2010. Professor Wickstroem has a PhD in fire technology from the Lund University of Technology and a master of science from the University of California, Berkeley, USA. He has for several years been active in international fire safety standardization where he has introduced many concepts based on his research such as the plate thermometer for measuring temperature and radiation, parametric fire curves of compartment fires, and shadow effects for calculating steel temperatures. He is also the originator of the notation adiabatic surface temperature which is now being used increasingly by modellers to express fire exposure. He developed the well-known computer code TASEF for calculating temperature in fire exposed materials, composites and structures.
Introduction.- Steady State Conduction in One Dimension.- Unsteady-state or Transient Conduction.- Boundary Conditions in Fire Protection Engineering.- Heat Transfer by Radiation.- Heat Transfer by Convection.- Numerical Methods.- Thermal Ignition Theory.- Measurements of Temperature and Heat Flux.- Post-flashover Compartment Fires: One-Zone Models.- Pre-flashover Compartment Fires: Two-Zone Models.- Fire Exposure of Structures According to Standards.- Temperature of Steel Structures.- Temperatures of Concrete Structures.- Temperature of Timber Structures.