This book provides a comprehensive up-to-date overview of temperature-programmed gas chromatography (GC). The first part of the book introduces the reader to the basics concepts of GC, as well as the key properties of GC columns. The second part describes the mathematical and physical background of GC. In the third part, different aspects in the formation of a chromatogram are discussed, including retention times, peak spacing and peak widths. An invaluable reference for any chromatographer and analytical chemist, it provides all the answers to questions like: * At what temperature does a solute elute in a temperature-programmed analysis? * What is the value of the retention factor of eluting solute? * How wide are the peaks? * How large is the time distance between two peaks? * How do all these parameters depend on the heating rate?
Leonid M. Blumberg obtained his academic degrees in electrical engineering and training in mathematics from leading institutions of higher education in St. Petersburg, Russia. In 1977, he immigrated to USA and joined Hewlett-Packard Co. as an electrical engineer. Later he became a resident theoretician responsible for optimization of GC instrumentation and analytical methods. In this capacity, he participated in defining several new GC instruments. After leaving HP in 1998, Dr. Blumberg founded a consulting company, Fast GC Consulting, and continued the development of theoretical foundation for optimization of conventional, fast and multi-dimensional GC where he is a world leading expert. Leonid Blumberg authored 50 scientific publications and patented 19 inventions.
Preface PART I: Introduction BASIC CONCEPTS AND TERMS A COLUMN Retention Mechanisms Structures Operational Modes Specific and General Properties of a Column Boundaries PART II: Background LINEAR SYSTEMS Problem Review: Metrics for Peak Retention Time and Width Chromatograph as an Information Processing System Properties of Linear Systems Mathematical Moments of Functions Properties of Mathematical Moments Pulses MIGRATION OF A SOLID OBJECT Velocity of an Object Parameters of Migration Path Relations between Path Parameters and Object Parameters SOLUTE-LIQUID INTERACTION IN GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY Distribution Constant and Retention Factor Chromatographic Parameters of Solute-Liquid Interaction Alternative Expressions of Ideal Retention Model Linearized Retention Model Relations between Characteristic Parameters MOLECULAR PROPERTIES OF IDEAL GAS Theory Gas Viscosity and Related Parameters - Empirical Formulae Empirical Formulae for Solute Diffusity in a Gas FLOW OF IDEAL GAS Mass-Conserving Flow Pneumatic Parameters Relations Between Pneumatic Parameters PART III: Formation of Chromatogram FORMATION OF RETENTION TIMES Solute Mobility Solute-Column Interaction and Solute Migration General Equations of a Solute Migration and Elution Uniform Solute Mobility in Isobaric Analysis Scalability of Retention Times in Isobaric Analyses Dimensionless Parameters Boundaries of Linearized Model FORMATION OF PEAK SPACING Static GC Analysis Closely Migrating Solutes in Dynamic Analysis Isobaric Linear Heating Ramp and Highly Interactive Solutes Properties of Generic Solutes FORMATION OF PEAK WIDTHS Overview Local Plate Height Solute Zone in Non-Uniform Medium Apparent Plate Number and Height Thin Film Columns Thick Film Columns Temperature-Programmed Analyses Temperature-Programmed Thin Film Columns Packed Columns Scalability of Peak Widths in Isobaric Analyses Plate Height: Evolution of the Concept Incorrect Plate Height Theory