For thousands of years, Pacific salmon have been the focus for the economic and social development of societies, both ancient and modern, around the rim of the North Pacific Ocean. Conducting lengthy oceanic migrations, the salmon pass through coastal waters of Alaska, British Columbia, and the northwest United States, completing their last journeys to their rivers of origin where they spawn and die. In dense homeward aggregations, they form lucrative targets for Canadian and United States fishermen who compete vigorously as the migrations pass southeastward.Beginning late in the 19th century and culminating in the 1985 Pacific Salmon Treaty, Canada and the United States carried out long and contentious negotiations to provide a framework for cooperation for conserving and sharing the vitally important Pacific salmon resource. The 1985 Pacific Salmon Treaty traces the history of the tumultuous negotiations, providing an insider's perspective on the many complex issues that were addressed. It concludes with a brief assessment of the treaty's performance under the difficult economic and environmental circumstances that have prevailed in the fishery since 1985. This incisive work, with its unique historical perspective, will be of great interest to the Canadian and United States fishing communities affected by the treaty, to the general public, politicians, and fisheries specialists in both countries concerned with stewardship of natural resources, and to scholars of international law and regional history.
M.P. Shepard was a technical advisor to the Pacific Salmon Treaty negotiations from 1958 to 1976, and negotiator from 1977 to 1983. A.W. Argue was a technical advisor during treaty negotiations and after implementation in 1985.
Acknowledgments 1 Salmon Migrations, Fisheries, and Problems 2 The Opening Stanzas: 1890s to 1960s 3 The Global Context 4 Comprehensive Bilateral Negotiations, 1960-85 5 The 1985 Treaty in Detail 6 Article II: Institutional Arrangements 7 Principles of the Treaty: Article III and the Memorandum of Understanding 8 Fraser River Sockeye and Pinks 9 Northern British Columbia/Southeastern Alaska Net Fisheries 10 Transboundary Rivers 11 Chinook Salmon 12 Coho Salmon 13 Southern British Columbia and Washington State Chum Salmon 14 Concluding Observations Appendices Notes Literature Cited Index