For thousands of years, Pacific salmon have been the focus for the
economic and social development of societies, both ancient and modern,
around the rim of the North Pacific Ocean. After lengthy oceanic
migrations, the salmon pass through coastal waters of Alaska, British
Columbia, and the northwest United States in a final journey to spawn,
where they form lucrative targets for Canadian and US fishermen.
Beginning late in the nineteenth century and culminating in the 1985
Pacific Salmon Treaty, Canada and the United States carried out long
and contentious negotiations to provide a framework for cooperation for
conserving and sharing the vitally important Pacific salmon resource.
The 1985 Pacific Salmon Treaty traces the history of the
tumultuous negotiations, providing an insider's perspective on
the many complex issues that were addressed. It concludes with a brief
assessment of the treaty's performance under the difficult
economic and environmental circumstances that have prevailed in the
fishery since 1985.
This incisive work, with its unique historical perspective, will be
of great interest to the Canadian and United States fishing communities
affected by the treaty, to the general public, politicians, and
fisheries specialists in both countries concerned with stewardship of
natural resources, and to scholars of international law and regional
M.P. Shepard was a technical advisor to the Pacific Salmon Treaty negotiations from 1958 to 1976, and negotiator from 1977 to 1983. A.W. Argue was a technical advisor during treaty negotiations and after implementation in 1985.
Acknowledgments 1 Salmon Migrations, Fisheries, and Problems 2 The Opening Stanzas: 1890s to 1960s 3 The Global Context 4 Comprehensive Bilateral Negotiations, 1960-85 5 The 1985 Treaty in Detail 6 Article II: Institutional Arrangements 7 Principles of the Treaty: Article III and the Memorandum of Understanding 8 Fraser River Sockeye and Pinks 9 Northern British Columbia/Southeastern Alaska Net Fisheries 10 Transboundary Rivers 11 Chinook Salmon 12 Coho Salmon 13 Southern British Columbia and Washington State Chum Salmon 14 Concluding Observations Appendices Notes Literature Cited Index