The period between the repeal of the Corn Laws and the First World War is crucial to the understanding of contemporary rural issues. The unifying theme of this monumental 2000 volume is the changing role of architecture and the countryside in national life, and the impact of social and economic forces unleashed by industrialisation and the growth of towns. Although science and technology had promised unprecedented advances in agricultural productivity, English agriculture had by 1914 lost both its 'headship among industries' and its technical supremacy among nations. Agriculture now produced less than one tenth of national income and employment, and less than half the nation's food. Only one fifth of the population was classified 'rural'; most traditional rural crafts had long since decayed; and the influence of the landowning classes was declining. Beginning with a critical view of the 'Golden Age' and Great Depression, this book goes on to consider separate elements relating to the theme.
List of figures; List of tables; General editor's preface; Editor's preface; List of abbreviations; Introduction E. J. T. Collins; Part I. Agriculture in the Industrial State; Section 1. Food Supplies and Food Policy E. J. T. Collins; Section 2. Rural and Agricultural Change E. J. T. Collins; Section 3. Agricultural Output, Income and Productivity M. E. Turner; Section 4. Agrarian Politics John R. Fisher; Part II. Agriculture Paul Brassley; Section 5. Farming Regions Paul Brassley and G. E. Mingay: 1. Introduction B. A. Holderness; 2. The South and South-East B. A. Holderness and G. E. Mingay; 3. East Anglia and the Fenlands B. A. Holderness; 4. The Midlands John R. Walton; 5. The Northern region Christine Hallas; 6. The South-West: Wiltshire, Dorset, Somerset, Devon and Cornwall Sarah Wilmot; 7. Wales R. J. Moore-Colyer; Section 6. Farming Systems Paul Brassley: 1. Introduction Paul Brassley; 2. Arable systems Paul Brassley; 3. Pastoral farming systems Paul Brassley; 4. Dairying B. A. Holderness; 5. Specialised cropping systems B. A. Holderness; 6. Intensive livestock keeping B. A. Holderness; Section 7. Farming Techniques Paul Brassley: 1. Introduction Paul Brassley; 2. Farm buildings R. D. Brigden; 3. Equipment and motive power R. D. Brigden; 4. Land drainage Paul Brassley; 5. Crop varieties Paul Brassley; 6. Plant nutrition Paul Brassley; 7. Weed and pest control; 8. Livestock breeds Paul Brassley; 9. Animal nutrition Paul Brassley; 10. Animal health and veterinary medicine Paul Brassley; Section 8. Agricultural Science and Education Paul Brassley; Section 9. Agricultural Institutions: Societies, Associations and the Press Nicholas Goddard; Part III. Land, Labour, Capital, Taxation J. V. Beckett and Peter Dewey; Section 10. Agricultural Landownership and Estate Management J. V. Beckett; Section 11. The Farmer G. E. Mingay; Section 12. Farm Labour Peter Dewey; Section 13. Investment, Accumulation and Agricultural Credit B. A. Holderness; Section 14. Agricultural Taxation G. E. Mingay; Part IV. Trade, Commerce and Industry John Chartres and Richard Perren: Introduction John Chartres and Richard Perren; Section 15. The Marketing of Agricultural Products: Farm Gate to Retail Store Richard Perren; Section 16. Agricultural Servicing Trades and Industries: 1. The agricultural engineering industry David Grace; 2. Agricultural chemical and fertiliser industries F. M. L. Thompson; 3. Veterinary products Richard Perren; 4. Animal feeding stuffs Richard Perren; Section 17. Food Processing Industries: 1. Milling Richard Perren; 2. Malting Jonathan Brown; 3. Food Manufacturing Richard Perren; Section 18. Rural Industry and Manufacturing John Chartres; Section 19. The Retail Trades and Agricultural Services John Cartres; Section 20. Conclusion John Chartres and Richard Perren; Part V. Rural Society and Community Alun Howkins: Introduction Alun Howkins; Section 21. Rural Demography, 1850-1914 Brian Short; Section 22. Types of Rural Communities Alun Howkins; Section 23. Social, cultural and Domestic Life Alun Howkins; Section 24. The Local State Anne Digby; Section 25. Social Institutions Anne Digby; Section 26. Overview Alun Howkins; Part VI. The Urban Impact on the Countryside Gordon E. Cherry; Part VII. The Statistical Base of Agricultural Performance in England and Wales, 1850-1914 Bethanie Afton and Michael Turner; Conclusion E. J. T. Collins; Select Bibliography; Index.