This translation of, and introduction to, the "Alsfeld Passion Play" is intended to fill a gap in German literary and linguistic scholarship by: making the play available to an English-speaking audience; examining its origins, development, staging, and contributions to the genre; and providing a companion text for students of late Middle High German. The play represents the culmination and perhaps the most complex stage of development of the German Passion Play tradition. The Alsfeld Play was a three-day play, with performances in 1501, 1511 and 1517. With roles for 188 players, it was presented on the open market square and was conspicous for its extensive devils' scenes. The original manuscript, preserved at the Landesbibliothek in Kassel, contains 8095 lines of a dialogue along with incipits, stage directions and a variety of liturgical songs. Text and translations appear on facing pages throughout this volume.