The Chemistry of Molecular Imaging

The Chemistry of Molecular Imaging

By: Wing-Tak Wong (author), Edmund H. Immergut (author), Nicholas Long (author)Hardback

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Description

Molecular imaging is primarily about the chemistry of novel biological probes, yet the vast majority of practitioners are not chemists or biochemists. This is the first book, written from a chemist's point of view, to address the nature of the chemical interaction between probe and environment to help elucidate biochemical detail instead of bulk anatomy. * Covers all of the fundamentals of modern imaging methodologies, including their techniques and application within medicine and industry * Focuses primarily on the chemistry of probes and imaging agents, and chemical methodology for labelling and bioconjugation * First book to investigate the chemistry of molecular imaging * Aimed at students as well as researchers involved in the area of molecular imaging

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About Author

Nicholas Long, PhD, is the Sir Edward Frankland BP Professor of Inorganic Chemistry and Head of the Catalysis, Sustainability and Applied Inorganics section in the Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London. He has published more than 150 scientific papers, including several high impact review articles and a critically-acclaimed textbook titled Metallocenes . He is Co-Director of the Centre for Doctoral Training in Medical Imaging at Imperial College and King s College London. Wing-Tak Wong, PhD, ScD, is Chair Professor of Chemical Technology and Head of the Department of Applied Biology and Chemical Technology at the Hong Kong Polytechnic University. He has received three International and US patents for his recent research on lanthanide luminescent materials, and is an author of more than 450 research papers.

Contents

Preface ix List of Contributors xi 1 An Introduction to Molecular Imaging 1 Ga-Lai Law and Wing-Tak Wong 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 What is Positron Emission Tomography (PET)? 3 1.3 What is Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT)? 6 1.4 What is Computed Tomography (CT) or Computed Axial Tomography (CAT)? 8 1.5 What is Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)? 11 1.6 What is Optical Imaging? 15 1.7 What is Ultrasound (US)? 19 1.8 Conclusions 22 References 24 2 Chemical Methodology for Labelling and Bioconjugation 25 Lina Cui and Jianghong Rao 2.1 Introduction 25 2.2 Chemical Methods 25 2.3 Site-Specific Modification of Proteins or Peptides 36 2.4 Conclusions 45 References 45 3 Recent Developments in the Chemistry of [18F]Fluoride for PET 55 Dirk Roeda and Frederic Dolle 3.1 Introduction 55 3.2 Fluorine-18: The Starting Material 56 3.3 Reactive [18F]Fluoride 56 3.4 The Radiofluorination 58 3.5 Labelling of Large Biological Molecules 65 3.6 Conclusions 70 References 70 4 Carbon-11 Nitrogen-13 and Oxygen-15 Chemistry: An Introduction to Chemistry with Short-Lived Radioisotopes 79 Philip W. Miller Koichi Kato and Bengt Langstrom 4.1 Introduction 79 4.2 Carbon-11 Chemistry 81 4.3 Nitrogen-13 Chemistry 93 4.4 Oxygen-15 Chemistry 98 4.5 Conclusions 99 References 99 5 The Chemistry of Inorganic Nuclides (86Y 68Ga 64Cu 89Zr 124I) 105 Eric W. Price and Chris Orvig 5.1 Introduction: Inorganic Nuclide-Based Radiopharmaceuticals 105 5.2 Radiopharmaceutical Design 107 5.3 Radiopharmaceutical Stability 108 5.4 86Yttrium Radiometal Ion Properties 110 5.5 68Gallium Radiometal Ion Properties 116 5.6 64Copper Radiometal Ion Properties 120 5.7 89Zirconium Radiometal Ion Properties 123 5.8 124Iodine Nuclide Properties 125 5.9 Conclusions 129 References 129 6 The Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry of Technetium and Rhenium 137 Jonathan R. Dilworth and Sofia I. Pascu 6.1 Introduction 137 6.2 Technetium and Rhenium Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry 139 6.3 Technetium and Rhenium(IV) 149 6.4 Technetium and Rhenium(III) 149 6.5 Technetium and Rhenium(I) 151 6.6 Imaging of Hypoxia with 99mTc 155 6.7 Technetium and Rhenium Diphosphonate Complexes 157 6.8 The Future for Technetium and Rhenium Radiopharmaceuticals 157 References 158 7 The Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry of Gallium(III) and Indium(III) for SPECT Imaging 165 Jonathan R. Dilworth and Sofia I. Pascu 7.1 Introduction to Gallium and Indium Chemistry 165 7.2 Gallium and Indium Complexes and Related Bioconjugates 166 7.3 Auger Electron Therapy with 111Indium 175 7.4 Prospects for 67Ga and 111In Radiochemistry 176 References 176 8 The Chemistry of Lanthanide MRI Contrast Agents 179 Stephen Faulkner and Octavia A. Blackburn 8.1 Introduction 179 8.2 Gadolinium Complexes as MRI Contrast Agents 180 8.3 Minimising the Toxicity of Gadolinium Contrast Agents 184 8.4 Rationalising the Behaviour of MRI Contrast Agents 185 8.5 Strategies for Increasing Relaxivity 188 8.6 Responsive MRI 192 8.7 Conclusions and Prospects 195 References 195 9 Nanoparticulate MRI Contrast Agents 199 Juan Gallo and Nicholas J. Long 9.1 Introduction 199 9.2 T2 Contrast Agents 200 9.3 T1 Contrast Agents 203 9.4 T1-T2 Dual MRI Contrast Agents 208 9.5 Water Solubilisation 209 9.6 Functionalisation and Surface Modification 213 9.7 Applications 216 9.8 Conclusions and Outlook 220 References 220 10 CEST and PARACEST Agents for Molecular Imaging 225 Osasere M. Evbuomwan Enzo Terreno Silvio Aime and A. Dean Sherry 10.1 Introduction 225 10.2 Diamagnetic CEST Agents 226 10.3 Paramagnetic Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (PARACEST) Agents 229 10.4 Responsive PARACEST Agents 230 10.5 In Vivo Detection of PARACEST Agents 233 10.6 Supramolecular CEST Agents 235 10.7 LipoCEST Agents 236 10.8 Conclusions 241 References 241 11 Organic Molecules for Optical Imaging 245 Michael Hon-Wah Lam Ga-Lai Law Chi-Sing Lee and Ka-Leung Wong 11.1 Introduction 245 11.2 Designing Molecular Probes for Bio-imaging 246 11.3 Different Types of Organic-based Chromophores and Fluorophores for Bioimaging 249 11.4 Mechanisms of Photophysical Processes and Their Applications in Molecular Imaging and Chemosensing 258 11.5 Two/Multi-photon Induced Emission and In Vitro / In Vivo Imaging 262 11.6 Time-Resolved Imaging 266 11.7 Bioluminescence in Molecular Imaging 267 11.8 Photoacoustic Imaging 269 11.9 Conclusion and Future Perspectives 270 References 270 12 Application of d- and f-Block Fluorescent Cell Imaging Agents 275 Michael P. Coogan and Simon J. A. Pope Abbreviations 275 12.1 Introduction 275 12.2 d6 Metal Complexes in Fluorescent Cell Imaging 277 12.3 f-Block Imaging Agents 285 12.4 Conclusions 296 References 296 13 Lanthanide-Based Upconversion Nanophosphors for Bioimaging 299 Fuyou Li Wei Feng Jing Zhou and Yun Sun 13.1 Introduction 299 13.2 Fabrication of Ln-UCNPs Suitable for Bioimaging 299 13.3 Surface Modification of Ln-UCNPs 304 13.4 In Vivo Imaging Applications 306 13.5 Biodistribution and Toxicity of UCNPs 316 13.6 Future Directions 317 References 317 14 Microbubbles: Contrast Agents for Ultrasound and MRI 321 April M. Chow and Ed X. Wu 14.1 Introduction 321 14.2 Classification of Microbubbles 321 14.3 Applications in Ultrasound Imaging 324 14.4 Applications in Magnetic Resonance Imaging 327 14.5 Applications beyond US Imaging and MRI 330 14.6 Conclusions: Limitations Bioeffects and Safety 330 References 331 15 Non-Nanoparticle-Based Dual-Modality Imaging Agents 335 Reinier Hernandez Tapas R. Nayak Hao Hong and Weibo Cai 15.1 Introduction 335 15.2 PET/Optical Agents 336 15.3 SPECT/Optical Agents 341 15.4 MRI/Optical Agents 345 15.5 PET/MRI Agents 348 15.6 Conclusions 348 References 350 16 Chemical Strategies for the Development of Multimodal Imaging Probes Using Nanoparticles 355 Amanda L. Eckermann Daniel J. Mastarone and Thomas J. Meade 16.1 Introduction 355 16.2 Fluorescence-MRI 357 16.3 Near-Infrared Fluorescence/MRI 359 16.4 NIR-PET 368 16.5 Upconversion Luminescence 372 16.6 PET-SPECT-CT-MRI 376 16.7 Ultrasound 382 16.8 Magnetomotive Optical Coherence Tomography (MM-OCT) 383 16.9 Photoacoustic Imaging 384 16.10 Conclusions 384 References 385 Index 389

Product Details

  • publication date: 20/02/2015
  • ISBN13: 9781118093276
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 408
  • ID: 9781118093276
  • weight: 1244
  • ISBN10: 1118093275

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