The Communist Experience in the Twentieth Century: A Global History Through Sources

The Communist Experience in the Twentieth Century: A Global History Through Sources

By: Glennys Young (author)Paperback

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Description

Using a source-based approach, The Communist Experience in the Twentieth Century is the first text designed to help students, general readers, and scholars understand how people constructed Communist ways of life around the world. Taking a global approach, it extends beyond Russia and Eastern Europe to examine the lives of people in China, Korea, Vietnam, Cambodia, Kyrgyzstan, Algeria, Peru, Cuba, and elsewhere. The book provides an inside look at the Communist experience, where people were-sometimes simultaneously so-enthusiasts, reshapers, resisters, and victims of an ideological project that was (and, for some, still is) both humanity's darkest nightmare and brightest hope. Since the collapse of Communist regimes beginning in 1989, vital questions-about how people subjectively experienced Communism, helped to shape it, and constructed an idea of "self" in such restrictive environments-have not lost their political significance. In fact, just the opposite holds true. The opening of many formerly closed Communist archives has given scholars the opportunity to research the political significance that the construction of the self had across Communist regimes, polities, and movements. Incorporating the latest scholarship, The Communist Experience in the Twentieth Century includes previously unavailable documents, such as diaries and letters, which are now accessible as a result of the archival revolution. A photo essay, "Everyday Life and Everyday Things under Socialism, 1945-1989," uses visual evidence to explore everyday life across the Communist civilizations. A locator map at the beginning of each chapter identifies the places associated with each of the sources, and a chronology provides a comparative timeline for Communist and world history.

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About Author

Glennys Young is Associate Professor of History and International Studies and the Director of Graduate Studies in the Department of History at the University of Washington. She is the author of Power and the Sacred in Revolutionary Russia: Religious Activists in the Village (1997), which was awarded an Honorable Mention for the Hans Rosenhaupt Memorial Book Award of the Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation.

Contents

Preface ; Acknowledgements ; Introduction ; List of Maps ; List of Illustrations ; Chronology: Twentieth-Century World History and the History of Communism ; 1. Becoming a Communist ; 2. Children of the Revolutions ; 3. Varieties of Communist Subjects: Beyond the Ordinary ; 4. Ideology and Self-Fashioning ; 5. Contesting the Meaning of State Violence and Repression ; 6. Everyday Life I: Work ; 7. Everyday Life, II: Space ; 8. Everyday Life, III: Are We Having Fun Yet? Entertainment, Sports, and Travel ; PHOTO ESSAY ; 9. Search for the Self and the Fall of Communism ; 10. Taking Stock: Reckoning with Communism's Pasts ; Suggestions for Further Reading, and Additional Resources ; Index ; Thematic Table of Contents ; Education ; Document 1.1 Russia: Semen Kanatchikov (1879-1940) on his circuitous road to Marxism ; Document 1.3 United States of America: Angelo Herndon (1913-1997) on his first exposure to Communism ; Document 1.7 Latin America: Testimonies from members of Peru's Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso) ; Document 2.1 Spain/USSR, Late 1930s: Letters by Spanish children evacuated during the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) (Letters are addressed to family and friends in Spain, 1938) ; Document 2.2 China, Late 1940s: An orphan of China's War with Japan tries to make sense of Communism ; Document 2.3 Cambodia, 1975-1979: Childhood under the Khmer Rouge ; Document 2.4 North Korea: A child and his aquarium during deportation to a concentration camp ; Document 2.5 Havana, Early 1960s: Childhood in Castro's Cuba ; Document 2.6 Peru: Testimony from a child conscripted by the Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso) ; Document 3.3 Kazakhstan, USSR: A Chinese student reflects on his role in the Soviet Union's virgin lands campaign in 1958 ; Document 4.1 USSR: The politics of self-presentation in the 1921 autobiography of a Communist Party member. ; Document 4.2 St. Louis, 1948: A Communist Party cell puts <"White Chauvinism>" on trial in a Baptist Church ; Document 4.5 Czechoslovakia, 1968: Students explain to workers and farmers why they are on strike, and why their strike is <"socialist>" ; Document 4.6 China, 1966-76: Contesting the official meaning of China's <"Cultural Revolution>": Raeyang (1950- ) ; Document 5.1 USSR: A Soviet teenager (Nina Sergeevna Lugovskaya, 1918-1993) grapples with the meaning of violence in 1934 in Stalinist Russia ; Document 5.4 China, 1989: Chinese writers on state violence before and after the massacre on Tiananmen Square ; Figure 6.1 Cuban Poster. <"Let's do our job!,>" for campaign for literacy, ca. 1961 ; Document 6.1 Moscow, 1928: A Chinese student in the USSR grapples with Love, Sex, Labor, and the building of Socialism ; Document 6.3 East Germany, June 17, 1953: Workers (and others!) against the <"workers' state>" ; Document 6.5 Bratislava, June 1963: The <"Working People of Slovakia>" express their grievances to the President of Czechoslovakia and the First Secretary of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, Antonin Novotny ; Document 6.7 Leningrad/St. Petersburg, Early 1980s/Early 1990s/Early 2000s: Alexei Rybin (1960- ), the guitarist for the Soviet rock band Kino, on the meaning of work and other things ; Document 7.1 Timi?oara, Romania: University students, <"Living Space,>" and everyday life after World War II ; Document 7.2 Nowa Huta (<"New Steelworks>"), Poland: Building Socialism in Poland's new socialist town from a cultural perspective ; Figure 8.1 Photograph of Sabira Kumushalieva (1917-2007) ; Document 8.1 Kyrgystan: Sabira Kumushalieva (1917-2007) on becoming a star of the Kyrgyz Stage and screen ; Document 8.2 A former Chinese student (Huang Jian, a.k.a. Yura Huanpin, 1927- ) in the USSR on what sports meant for his life and for socialism ; Document 8.3 Seoul, Korea, 1950: Working as an actress for the North Korean communists ; Document 8.6 USSR 1970s and 1980s: Inventing Soviet Rock 'n' roll ; Discovering the Beatles: Vsevolod Gakkel of the Soviet Rock Band Akvarium ; Document 9.1 Poland 1988-89: The <"Orange Alternative>" and Revolution as street theatre ; Document 9.6 Ukraine, 1990: Salomea Pavlychko (1958-1999) on a self in flux amidst political uncertainty and economic hardship ; Document 10.1 A former assistant (Manfred Uschner, 1937-2007) of the East German Communist Party's Central Committee Secretary writes his Communist past for a post-communist political career ; Document 10.2 A historian from the former East Germany (Hartmut Zwahr, born 1936) on complicity, responsibility, and victimization ; Document 10.3 Bratislava, Slovakia, 2007: A philosophy student at Comenius University on the spectre a new <"Totalitarian Ideology>" in the post-communist age. ; Document 10.5 An Italian Communist (Nicola Vendola, born 1958) on the pre-1991 communism of his youth, and the post-1991 communism of his <"maturity>": His continuing search for <"another possible world>" ; Ethnicity, Race, and National Identity ; Document 1.3 United States of America: Angelo Herndon (1913-1997) on his first exposure to Communism ; Document 1.4 Vietnam: Xuan Phong (1929- ) on her attraction to Vietnamese Communism ; Document 1.5 Algeria: Henry Alleg (1921- ) on clandestine Communist activities during World War II ; Document 1.6 Poland: Jacek Kuro? (1934-2004) on the appeal of Communism after World War II ; Figure 1.2 People-many of them African-Americans-at a Communist rally against unemployment in Kansas City, Missouri, most likely in 1931 ; Document 2.1 Spain/USSR, Late 1930s: Letters by Spanish children evacuated during the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) (Letters are addressed to family and friends in Spain, 1938): Emiliano Aza, letter from Odessa of 31 January 1938 ; Document 2.2 China, Late 1940s: An orphan of China's war with Japan tries to make sense of Communism ; Document 2.5 Havana, early 1960s: Childhood in Castro's Cuba ; Document 3.1 USSR, 1930s-1940s: Homer Smith (1910-1972) on being an African-American in the Soviet Union ; Document 3.3 Kazakhstan, USSR: A Chinese student reflects on his role in the Soviet Union's virgin lands campaign in 1958 ; Document 4.2 St. Louis, 1948: A Communist Party cell puts <"White Chauvinism>" on trial in a Baptist church ; Document 4.3 Bulgaria, 1949-1981: A regional Communist Party leader on resistance to collectivization-and its <"transcendence>" ; Document 4.4 Cuba, 1960s: Luis M. Garcia (1959- ) on folk and <"western>" medicine in Castro's Cuba ; Document 4.5 Czechoslovakia, 1968: Students explain to workers and farmers why they are on strike and why their strike is <"socialist>" ; Ch. 5 Introduction Contesting the Meaning of State Violence and Repression ; Document 5.3 Hungary, 1956: A (University) students reacts to the USSR's violent suppression of the Hungarian Revolution ; Document 5.4 China, 1989: Chinese writers on state violence before and after the massacre on Tiananmen Square ; Document 6.1 Moscow, 1928: A Chinese student in the USSR grapples with love, sex, labor, and the building of socialism ; Document 6.3 East Germany, June 17, 1953: Workers (and others!) against the <"workers' state>" ; Document 6.4 China, Great Leap Forward (1957-1961): Recollections of a local cadre (Wang Fucheng, 1923- ) and his wife (Wang Xianghua) ; Document 6.5 Bratislava, June, 1963: The <"Working People of Slovakia>" express their grievances to the President of Czechoslovakia and the First Secretary of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, Antonin Novotny ; Document 7.1 Timi?oara, Romania: University students, <"Living Space,>" and everyday life after World War II ; Document 7.3 Vietnam, 1946-1949: Organic space, human space, and the Viet Minh's guerilla war against the French. ; Document 7.5 The USSR, Late 1960s: Soviet pensioners try to leave the Kommunalka (Communal apartment) for a room or rooms of their own ; Figure 8.1 Photograph of Sabira Kumushalieva (1917-2007) ; Document 8.1 Kyrgystan: Sabira Kumushalieva (1917-2007) on becoming a star of the Kyrgyz Stage and screen ; Document 8.2 A former Chinese student (Huang Jian, a.k.a. Yura Huanpin, 1927- ) in the USSR on what sports meant for his life and for socialism ; Document 8.3 Seoul, Korea, 1950: Working as an actress for the North Korean communists ; Document 9.3 A West German (Hans-Ulrich Treichel, born in 1952) grapples with the meaning of the fall of the Berlin Wall ; Document 9.4 Yugoslavia, 1989-1990: A scholar (Josip %Sentija) on identity, self, and the Croatian nation ; Document 9.5 Romania: Laszlo Tokes (1952- ), the pastor whose resistance helped to galvanize the fall of Romania's Communist regime, reflects on the events of December, 1989 in Timi?oara ; Document 9.6 Ukraine, 1990: Salomea Pavlychko (1958-1999) on a self in flux amidst political uncertainty and economic hardship ; Document 10.1 A former assistant (Manfred Uschner, 1937-2007) of the East German Communist Party's Central Committee Secretary writes his Communist part for a post-Communist political career ; Document 10.2 A historian from the former East Germany (Hartmut Zwahr, born 1936) on complicity, responsibility, and victimization ; Figure 10.2 A still from the filming of <"Journey Home>" (Reka Pigniczky, 2006) ; Document 10.3 Bratislava, Slovakia, 2007: A philosophy student at Comenius University on the spectre a new <"Totalitarian Ideology>" in the post-communist age. ; Document 10.4 A Estonian writer, poet, and politician, Jaan Kaplinski (born 1941), on global capitalism as a new <"Soviet Union>" ; Document 10.5 An Italian Communist (Nicola Vendola, born 1958) on the pre-1991 communism of his youth, and the post-1991 communism of his <"maturity>": His continuing search for <"another possible world>" ; Family and Home Life ; Document 1.1 Russia: Semen Kanatchikov (1879-1940) on his circuitous road to Marxism ; Document 1.2 China: Xiao Ke (1909-????) writes his life into the Marxist understanding of history ; Document 1.4 Vietnam: Xuan Phong (1929- ) on her attraction to Vietnamese Communism ; Document 1.4 Vietnam: Xuan Phong (1929- ) on her attraction to Vietnamese Communism ; Document 1.7 Latin America: Testimonies from members of Peru's Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso) ; Document 2.1 Spain/USSR, Late 1930s: Letters by Spanish children evacuated during the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) (Letters are addressed to family and friends in Spain, 1938) ; Document 2.2 China, Late 1940s: An orphan of China's war with Japan tries to make sense of Communism ; Document 2.3 Cambodia, 1975-1979: Childhood under the Khmer Rouge ; Document 2.4 North Korea: A child and his aquarium during deportation to a concentration camp ; Document 2.5 Havana, early 1960s: Childhood in Castro's Cuba ; Document 2.6 Peru: Testimony from a child conscripted by the Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso) ; Document 3.1 USSR, 1930s-1940s: Homer Smith (1910-1972) on being an African-American in the Soviet Union ; Document 3.2 USSR: Harry Whyte, an ordinary British Communist, challenges Stain on homosexuality ; Document 3.4 Lithuania, 1940s-2004: A Lithuanian mother reflects on her disabled son's life ; Document 3.6 Havana, Cuba, 1994: <"Manifesto of the Gay and Lesbian Association of Cuba>" ; Document 4.1 USSR: The politics of self-presentation in the 1921 autobiography of a Communist Party member ; Document 4.2 St. Louis, 1948: A Communist Party cell puts <"White Chauvinism>" on trial in a Baptist church ; Document 4.3 Bulgaria, 1949-1981: A regional Communist Party leader on resistance to collectivization-and its <"transcendence>" ; Document 4.4 Cuba, 1960s: Luis M. Garcia (1959- ) on folk and <"western>" medicine in Castro's Cuba ; Document 4.6 China, 1966-76: Contesting the official meaning of China's <"Cultural Revolution>" Raeyang (1950- ) ; Document 5.1 USSR: A Soviet Teenager (Nina Sergeevna Lugovskaya, 1918-1993) grapples with the meaning of political violence in 1934 in Stalinist Russia ; Document 5.2 Spain, 1937: Robert Hale Merriman (1908-1938), an American University student and volunteer commander in the international brigades during the Spanish Civil War ; Document 5.3 Hungary, 1956: A (University) student reacts to the USSR's violent suppression of the Hungarian Revolution ; Document 5.5 Leipzig, East Germany, September, 1989: A Lutheran pastor uses biblical passages to condemn state violence and counsel non-violence ; Document 6.2 USSR, 1929-1934: Labor and its meaning during Stalin's <"Great Break>" ; Document 6.4 China, Great Leap Forward (1957-1961): Recollections of a local cadre (Wang Fucheng, 1923- ) and his wife (Wang Xianghua) ; Document 6.5 Bratislava, June, 1963: The <"Working People of Slovakia>" express their grievances to the President of Czechoslovakia and the First Secretary of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, Antonin Novotny ; Document 6.6 Poland, 1982: Polish workers generate a common knowledge of how to resist on an everyday basis ; Document 7.1 Timi?oara, Romania: University students, <"Living Space,>" and everyday life after World War II ; Document 7.2 Nowa Huta (<"New Steelworks>"), Poland: Building Socialism in Poland's new socialist town from a cultural perspective ; Document 7.3 Vietnam, 1946-1949: Organic space, human space, and the Viet Minh's guerilla war against the French. ; Document 7.5 The USSR, Late 1960s: Soviet pensioners try to leave the Kommunalka (Communal apartment) for a room or rooms of their own ; Figure 8.1 Photograph of Sabira Kumushalieva (1917-2007) ; Document 8.1 Kyrgystan: Sabira Kumushalieva (1917-2007) on becoming a star of the Kyrgyz Stage and screen ; Document 8.2 A former Chinese student (Huang Jian, a.k.a. Yura Huanpin, 1927- ) in the USSR on what sports meant for his life and for socialism ; Document 8.3 Seoul, Korea, 1950: Working as an actress for the North Korean communists ; Document 8.4 East Germany, Late 1940s, Early 1950s: A young jazz fan trades on the black market to dress in a <"decadent>" way ; Document 8.5 Croatia/Yugoslavia, 1996, 1950s, 1960s: On travel from a land of socialism to one of capitalism, and back ; Document 8.6 USSR, 1970s and 1980s: Inventing Soviet rock 'n' roll: Discovering the Beatles: Vsevolod Gakkel of the Soviet Rock Band Akvarium ; Document 9.1 Poland, 1988-89: The <"Orange Alternative>" and revolution as street theatre ; Document 9.5 Romania: Laszlo Tokes (1952- ), the pastor whose resistance helped to galvanize the fall of Romania's Communist regime, reflects on the events of December, 1989 in Timi?oara ; Ch 10 Introduction Taking Stock: Reckoning with Communism's Past ; Document 10.1 A former assistant (Manfred Uschner, 1937-2007) of the East German Communist Party's Central Committee Secretary writes his Communist part for a post-Communist political career ; Figure 10.2 A still from the filming of <"Journey Home>" (Reka Pigniczky, 2006) ; Document 10.5 An Italian Communist (Nicola Vendola, born 1958) on the pre-1991 communism of his youth, and the post-1991 communism of his <"maturity>": His continuing search for <"another possible world>" ; Internationalizing the Revolution ; Document 1.2 China: Xiao Ke (1909-????) writes his life into the Marxist understanding of history ; Document 1.4 Vietnam: Xuan Phong (1929- ) on her attraction to Vietnamese Communism ; Document 1.5 Algeria: Henri Alleg (1921- ) on clandestine Communist activities during World War II ; Document 1.6 Poland: Jacek Kuron (1934-2004) on the appeal of Communism after World War II ; Document 1.7 Latin America: Testimonies from members of Peru's Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso) ; Document 2.1 Spain/USSR, Late 1930s: Letters by Spanish children evacuated from Spain to the USSR during the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) (Letters addressed to family and friends in Spain, 1938) ; Document 2.2 China, Late 1940s: An orphan of China's war with Japan tries to make sense of Communism ; Document 2.3 Cambodia, 1975-1979: Childhood under the Khmer Rouge ; Document 2.4 North Korea: A child and his aquarium during deportation to a concentration camp ; Document 2.5 Havana, Early 1960s: Childhood in Castro's Cuba ; Document 3.1 USSR, 1930s-1940s: Homer Smith (1910-1972) on being an African-American in the Soviet Union ; Document 3.2 USSR, 1934: Harry Whyte, an ordinary British Communist, challenges Stalin on homosexuality ; Document 3.3 Kazakhstan, USSR: A Chinese student reflects on his role in the Soviet Union's virgin lands campaign in 1958 ; Document 3.4 Lithuania, 1940s-2004: A Lithuanian mother reflects on her disabled son's life. ; Document 4.2 St. Louis, 1948: A Communist Part Cell puts <"White Chauvinism>" on trial in a Baptist Church ; Document 4.3 Bulgaria, 1949/1981: A regional Communist Party leader on resistance to collectivization-and its <"transcendence>" ; Document 4.4 Cuba, 1960s: Luis M. Garcia (1959- ) on folk and <"western>"medicine in Castro's Cuba ; Document 4.5 Czechoslovakia, 1968: Students explain to workers and farmers why they are on strike, and why their strike is <"socialist>" ; Document 4.6 China, 1966-76: Contesting the official meaning of China's <"Cutural Revolution>" Raeyang (1950- ) ; Document 5.2 Spain, 1937: Robert Hale Merriman (1908-1938), an American University student and volunteer commander in the international brigades during the Spain Civil War ; Document 5.3 Hungary, 1956: A (University) student reacts to the USSR's violent suppression of the Hungarian Revolution ; Document 5.4 China, 1989: Chinese writers on state violence before and after the massacre on Tiananmen Square ; Document 6.1 Moscow, 1928: A Chinese student in the USSR grapples with love, sex, labor, and the building of socialism ; Document 6.3 East Germany, June 17, 1953: Workers (and others!) against the <"Workers' State>" ; Document 6.4 China, Great Leap Forward (1957-1961): Recollections of a local cadre (Wang Fucheng, 1923- ) and his wife (Wang Xianghua) ; Document 6.5 Bratislava, June, 1963: The <"Working People of Slovakia>" express their grievances to the President of Czechoslovakia and the First Secretary of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, Antonin Novotny ; Document 7.1 Timi?oara, Romania: University students, <"Living Space,>" and everyday life after World War II ; Document 7.2 Nowa Huta (<"New Steelworks>"), Poland: Building Socialism in Poland's new socialist town from a cultural perspective ; Document 7.3 Vietnam, 1946-1949: Organic space, human space, and the Viet Minh's guerilla war against the French. ; Document 8.2 A former Chinese student (Huang Jian, a.k.a. Yura Huanpin, 1927- ) in the USSR on what sports meant for his life and for socialism ; Document 8.3 Seoul, Korea, 1950: Working as an actress for the North Korean communists ; Document 8.4 East Germany, Late 1940s, Early 1950s: A young jazz fan trades on the black market to dress in a <"decadent>" way ; Document 8.5 Croatia/Yugoslavia, 1996, 1950s, 1960s: On travel from a land of socialism to one of capitalism, and back ; Document 10.1 A former assistant (Manfred Uschner, 1937-2007) of the East German Communist Party's Central Committee Secretary writes his Communist part for a post-Communist political career ; Document 10.2 A historian from the former East Germany (Hartmut Zwahr, born 1936) on complicity, responsibility, and victimization ; Document 10.4 A Estonian writer, poet, and politician, Jaan Kaplinski (born 1941), on global capitalism as a new <"Soviet Union>" ; Document 10.5 An Italian Communist (Nicola Vendola, born 1958) on the pre-1991 communism of his youth, and the post-1991 communism of his <"maturity>": His continuing search for <"another possible world>" ; Law and Justice ; Document 2.5 Havana, Early 1960s: Childhood in Castro's Cuba ; Figure 2.2 A Peruvian youth-part of one of the peasant self-defense forces (rondas campesinas)-holds a sawed-off shotgun. ; Document 2.6 Peru: Testimony from a child conscripted by the Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso) ; Document 3.1 USSR, 1930s-1940s: Homer Smith (1910-1972) on being an African-American in the Soviet Union ; Document 3.2 USSR, 1934: Harry Whyte, an ordinary British Communist, challenges Stalin on homosexuality ; Document 3.5 East Germany: Letter of 1988 from a working group on homosexuality in a Protestant Church in the city of Halle to the East German Ministry of the Interior ; Figure 4.1 Japanese Election Poster, April 16, 1946 ; Document 4.5 Czechoslovakia, 1968: Students explain to workers and farmers why they are on strike, and why their strike is <"socialist>" ; Document 5.1 USSR: A Soviet Teenager (Nina Sergeevna Lugovskaya, 1918-1993) grapples with the meaning of political violence in 1934 in Stalinist Russia ; Figure 5.1 Shaming a <"Capitalist Roader>" during Mao's Cultural Revolution. Date stamped on verso: 15 February 1967. ; Document 5.4 China, 1989: Chinese writers on state violence before and after the massacre on Tiananmen Square ; Document 5.5 Leipzig, East Germany, September, 1989: A Lutheran pastor uses biblical passages to condemn state violence and counsel non-violence ; Document 6.3 East Germany, June 17, 1953: Workers (and others!) against the <"Workers' State>" ; Document 6.6 Poland, 1982: Polish workers generate a common knowledge of how to resist on an everyday basis ; Document 6.7 Leningrad/St. Petersburg, Early 1980s/Early 1990s/Early 2000s: Alexei Rybin (1960- ), the guitarist for the Soviet rock band Kino, on the meaning of work and other things ; Document 8.5 Croatia/Yugoslavia, 1996, 1950s, 1960s: On travel from a land of socialism to one of capitalism, and back ; Document 9.1 Poland, 1988-89: The <"Orange Alternative>" and revolution as street theatre ; Document 9.2 East Germany, September-October, 1989: The emergence of <"New Forum>" (Neues Forum) ; Document 9.6 Ukraine, 1990: Salomea Pavlychko (1958-1999) on a self in flux amidst political uncertainty and economic hardship ; Ch 10 Introduction Taking Stock and Reckoning with Communism's Pasts ; Document 10.1 A former assistant (Manfred Uschner, 1937-2007) of the East German Communist Party's Central Committee Secretary writes his Communist part for a post-Communist political career ; Document 10.4 A Estonian writer, poet, and politician, Jaan Kaplinski (born 1941), on global capitalism as a new <"Soviet Union>" ; Document 10.5 An Italian Communist (Nicola Vendola, born 1958) on the pre-1991 communism of his youth, and the post-1991 communism of his <"maturity>": His continuing search for <"another possible world>" ; Religion ; Document 1.1 Russia: Semen Kanatchikov (1879-1940) on his circuitous road to Marxism ; Document 1.3 United States of America: Angelo Herndon (1913-1997) on his first exposure to Communism ; Document 1.4 Vietnam: Xuan Phong (1929- ) on her attraction to Vietnamese Communism ; Document 2.5 Havana, Early 1960s: Childhood in Castro's Cuba ; Document 3.1 USSR, 1930s-1940s: Homer Smith (1910-1972) on being an African-American in the Soviet Union ; Document 3.5 East Germany: Letter of 1988 from a working group on homosexuality in a Protestant Church in the city of Halle to the East German Ministry of the Interior ; Figure 5.1 Shaming a <"Capitalist Roader>" during Mao's Cultural Revolution. Date stamped on verso: 15 February 1967. ; Document 5.3 Hungary, 1956: A (University) student reacts to the USSR's violent suppression of the Hungarian Revolution ; Figure 5.4 <"Swords Into Ploughshares>" ; Document 5.5 Leipzig, East Germany, September, 1989: A Lutheran pastor uses biblical passages to condemn state violence and counsel non-violence ; Document 6.5 Bratislava, June, 1963: The <"Working People of Slovakia>" express their grievances to the President of Czechoslovakia and the First Secretary of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, Antonin Novotny ; Document 7.1 Timi?oara, Romania: University students, <"Living Space,>" and everyday life after World War II ; Figure 8.1 Photograph of Sabira Kumushalieva (1917-2007) ; Document 8.3 Seoul, Korea, 1950: Working as an actress for the North Korean communists ; Document 8.4 East Germany, Late 1940s, Early 1950s: A young jazz fan trades on the black market to dress in a <"decadent>" way ; Document 9.4 Yugoslavia, 1989-1990: A scholar (Josip %Sentija) on identity, self, and the Croatian nation ; Document 9.6 Ukraine, 1990: Salomea Pavlychko (1958-1999) on a self in flux amidst political uncertainty and economic hardship ; Document 10.2 A historian from the former East Germany (Hartmut Zwahr, born 1936) on complicity, responsibility, and victimization ; Document 10.3 Bratislava, Slovakia, 2007: A philosophy student at Comenius University on the spectre a new <"Totalitarian Ideology>" in the post-communist age. ; Resistance to Communist States and Movements ; Ch 1 Introduction Becoming a Communist ; Document 1.7 Latin America: Testimonies from members of Peru's Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso) ; Document 2.5 Havana, Early 1960s: Childhood in Castro's Cuba ; Figure 2.2 A Peruvian youth-part of one of the peasant self-defense forces (rondas campesinas)-holds a sawed-off shotgun. ; Document 2.6 Peru: Testimony from a child conscripted by the Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso) ; Document 3.4 Lithuania, 1940s-2004: A Lithuanian mother reflects on her disabled son's life. ; Document 3.5 East Germany: Letter of 1988 from a working group on homosexuality in a Protestant Church in the city of Halle to the East German Ministry of the Interior ; Document 3.6 Havana, Cuba, 1994: <"Manifesto of the Gay and Lesbian Association of Cuba>" ; Document 4.3 Bulgaria, 1949/1981: A regional Communist Party leader on resistance to collectivization-and its <"transcendence>" ; Document 4.5 Czechoslovakia, 1968: Students explain to workers and farmers why they are on strike, and why their strike is <"socialist>" ; Figure 5.1 Shaming a <"Capitalist Roader>" during Mao's Cultural Revolution. Date stamped on verso: 15 February 1967. ; Document 5.1 USSR: A Soviet Teenager (Nina Sergeevna Lugovskaya, 1918-1993) grapples with the meaning of political violence in 1934 in Stalinist Russia ; Document 5.3 Hungary, 1956: A (University) student reacts to the USSR's violent suppression of the Hungarian Revolution ; Document 5.4 China, 1989: Chinese writers on state violence before and after the massacre on Tiananmen Square ; Figure 5.3 Pictured is one of the victims of the Chinese army crackdown of 3-4 June ; Document 5.5 Leipzig, East Germany, September, 1989: A Lutheran pastor uses biblical passages to condemn state violence and counsel non-violence ; Figure 5.4 <"Swords Into Ploughshares>" ; Document 6.3 East Germany, June 17, 1953: Workers (and others!) against the <"Workers' State>" ; Document 6.5 Bratislava, June, 1963: The <"Working People of Slovakia>" express their grievances to the President of Czechoslovakia and the First Secretary of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, Antonin Novotny ; Document 6.6 Poland, 1982: Polish workers generate a common knowledge of how to resist on an everyday basis ; Document 8.3 Seoul, Korea, 1950: Working as an actress for the North Korean communists ; Document 8.4 East Germany, Late 1940s, Early 1950s: A young jazz fan trades on the black market to dress in a <"decadent>" way ; Document 8.5 Croatia/Yugoslavia, 1996, 1950s, 1960s: On travel from a land of socialism to one of capitalism, and back ; Ch 9 Introduction Search for the self and the fall of Communism ; Figure 9.1 This street plaque, which commemorates the events of October 9, 1989 in Leipzig, is located in the paved area next to St. Nicholas Church ; Document 9.1 Poland, 1988-89: The <"Orange Alternative>" and revolution as street theatre ; Document 9.2 East Germany, September-October, 1989: The emergence of <"New Forum>" (Neues Forum) ; Document 9.3 A West German (Hans-Ulrich Treichel, born in 1952) grapples with the meaning of the fall of the Berlin Wall ; Figure 9.2 Pictured is one of the victims of state violence in Timi?oara, where the Romanian Revolution of 1989 began in December. ; Document 9.5 Romania: Laszlo Tokes (1952- ), the pastor whose resistance helped to galvanize the fall of Romania's Communist regime, reflects on the events of December, 1989 in Timi?oara ; Document 9.6 Ukraine, 1990: Salomea Pavlychko (1958-1999) on a self in flux amidst political uncertainty and economic hardship ; Figure 10.1 Banner at outdoor exhibit, <"Das Jahr 1989. Bilder einer Zeitwende>": <"Images of a Historical Turning Point.>" ; Document 10.1 A former assistant (Manfred Uschner, 1937-2007) of the East German Communist Party's Central Committee Secretary writes his Communist part for a post-Communist political career ; Figure 10.2 This image is a still from the filming of <"Journey Home>" (Reka Pigniczky, 2006). ; Surveillance ; Document 1.1 Russia: Semen Kanatchikov (1879-1940) on his circuitous road to Marxism ; Document 1.7 Latin America: Testimonies from members of Peru's Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso) ; Document 2.3 Cambodia, 1975-1979: Childhood under the Khmer Rouge ; Document 2.4 North Korea: A child and his aquarium during deportation to a concentration camp ; Document 2.5 Havana, Early 1960s: Childhood in Castro's Cuba ; Document 2.6 Peru: Testimony from a child conscripted by the Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso) ; Document 3.1 USSR, 1930s-1940s: Homer Smith (1910-1972) on being an African-American in the Soviet Union ; Document 3.4 Lithuania, 1940s-2004: A Lithuanian mother reflects on her disabled son's life. ; Document 4.6 China, 1966-76: Contesting the official meaning of China's <"Cutural Revolution>" Raeyang (1950- ) ; Document 5.1 USSR: A Soviet Teenager (Nina Sergeevna Lugovskaya, 1918-1993) grapples with the meaning of political violence in 1934 in Stalinist Russia ; Document 5.4 China, 1989: Chinese writers on state violence before and after the massacre on Tiananmen Square ; Document 5.5 Leipzig, East Germany, September, 1989: A Lutheran pastor uses biblical passages to condemn state violence and counsel non-violence ; Document 6.6 Poland, 1982: Polish workers generate a common knowledge of how to resist on an everyday basis ; Document 7.5 The USSR, Late 1960s: Soviet pensioners try to leave the Kommunalka (Communal apartment) for a room or rooms of their own: Letter of 1966 from Aleksei Stepanovich Zlobin to the chair of the Leningrad City Soviet, V. IA. ISAEV ; Document 8.3 Seoul, Korea, 1950: Working as an actress for the North Korean communists ; Document 8.4 East Germany, Late 1940s, Early 1950s: A young jazz fan trades on the black market to dress in a <"decadent>" way ; Document 8.6 USSR, 1970s and 1980s: Inventing Soviet rock 'n' roll ; Document 9.1 Poland, 1988-89: The <"Orange Alternative>" and revolution as street theatre ; Document 9.5 Romania: Laszlo Tokes (1952- ), the pastor whose resistance helped to galvanize the fall of Romania's Communist regime, reflects on the events of December, 1989 in Timi?oara ; Document 10.1 A former assistant (Manfred Uschner, 1937-2007) of the East German Communist Party's Central Committee Secretary writes his Communist part for a post-Communist political career ; Document 10.2 A historian from the former East Germany (Hartmut Zwahr, born 1936) on complicity, responsibility, and victimization ; Women ; Ch 1 Introduction Becoming Communist ; Document 1.4 Vietnam: Xuan Phong (1929- ) on her attraction to Vietnamese Communism ; Document 1.5 Algeria: Henri Alleg (1921- ) on clandestine Communist activities during World War II ; Document 1.7 Latin America: Testimonies from members of Peru's Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso) ; Document 2.1 Spain/USSR, Late 1930s: Letters by Spanish children evacuated from Spain to the USSR during the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) (Letters addressed to family and friends in Spain, 1938) ; Document 2.2 China, Late 1940s: An orphan of China's war with Japan tries to make sense of Communism ; Document 2.3 Cambodia, 1975-1979: Childhood under the Khmer Rouge ; Document 2.4 North Korea: A child and his aquarium during deportation to a concentration camp ; Document 2.5 Havana, Early 1960s: Childhood in Castro's Cuba ; Document 2.6 Peru: Testimony from a child conscripted by the Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso) ; Document 3.1 USSR, 1930s-1940s: Homer Smith (1910-1972) on being an African-American in the Soviet Union ; Document 3.4 Lithuania, 1940s-2004: A Lithuanian mother reflects on her disabled son's life. ; Document 4.2 St. Louis, 1948: A Communist Part Cell puts <"White Chauvinism>" on trial in a Baptist Church ; Document 4.3 Bulgaria, 1949/1981: A regional Communist Party leader on resistance to collectivization-and its <"transcendence>" ; Document 4.4 Cuba, 1960s: Luis M. Garcia (1959- ) on folk and <"western>"medicine in Castro's Cuba ; Document 4.6 China, 1966-76: Contesting the official meaning of China's <"Cutural Revolution>" Raeyang (1950- ) ; Document 5.1 USSR: A Soviet Teenager (Nina Sergeevna Lugovskaya, 1918-1993) grapples with the meaning of political violence in 1934 in Stalinist Russia ; Document 5.3 Hungary, 1956: A (University) student reacts to the USSR's violent suppression of the Hungarian Revolution ; Document 5.4 China, 1989: Chinese writers on state violence before and after the massacre on Tiananmen Square ; Document 5.5 Leipzig, East Germany, September, 1989: A Lutheran pastor uses biblical passages to condemn state violence and counsel non-violence ; Document 6.1 Moscow, 1928: A Chinese student in the USSR grapples with love, sex, labor, and the building of socialism ; Document 6.2 USSR, 1929-1934: Labor and its meaning during Stalin's <"Great Break>" ; Document 6.3 East Germany, June 17, 1953: Workers (and others!) against the <"Workers' State>" ; Document 6.4 China, Great Leap Forward (1957-1961): Recollections of a local cadre (Wang Fucheng, 1923- ) and his wife (Wang Xianghua) ; Document 7.1 Timi?oara, Romania: University students, <"Living Space,>" and everyday life after World War II ; Document 7.2 Nowa Huta (<"New Steelworks>"), Poland: Building Socialism in Poland's new socialist town from a cultural perspective ; Document 7.3 Vietnam, 1946-1949: Organic space, human space, and the Viet Minh's guerilla war against the French. ; Document 7.5 The USSR, Late 1960s: Soviet pensioners try to leave the Kommunalka (Communal apartment) for a room or rooms of their own: Letter of 1966 from Aleksei Stepanovich Zlobin to the chair of the Leningrad City Soviet, V. IA. ISAEV ; Figure 8.1 Photograph of Sabira Kumushalieva (1917-2007) ; Document 8.1 Kyrgyzstan: Sabira Kumushalieva (1917-2007) on becoming a star of the Kyrgyz stage and screen ; Document 8.2 A former Chinese student (Huang Jian, a.k.a. Yura Huanpin, 1927- ) in the USSR on what sports meant for his life and for socialism ; Document 8.3 Seoul, Korea, 1950: Working as an actress for the North Korean Communists ; Document 8.4 East Germany, Late 1940s, Early 1950s: A young jazz fan trades on the black market to dress in a <"decadent>" way ; Document 8.5 Croatia/Yugoslavia, 1996, 1950s, 1960s: On travel from a land of socialism to one of capitalism, and back ; Document 8.6 USSR, 1970s and 1980s: Inventing Soviet rock 'n' roll: Discovering the Beatles: Vsevolod Gakkel of the Soviet Rock Band Akvarium ; Document 9.1 Poland, 1988-89: The <"Orange Alternative>" and revolution as street theatre ; Document 9.2 East Germany, September-October, 1989: The emergence of <"New Forum>" (Neues Forum) ; Document 9.5 Romania: Laszlo Tokes (1952- ), the pastor whose resistance helped to galvanize the fall of Romania's Communist regime, reflects on the events of December, 1989 in Timi?oara ; Document 9.6 Ukraine, 1990: Salomea Pavlychko (1958-1999) on a self in flux amidst political uncertainty and economic hardship ; Document 10.1 A former assistant (Manfred Uschner, 1937-2007) of the East German Communist Party's Central Committee Secretary writes his Communist part for a post-Communist political career ; Document 10.2 A historian from the former East Germany (Hartmut Zwahr, born 1936) on complicity, responsibility, and victimization

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  • publication date: 13/10/2011
  • ISBN13: 9780195366907
  • Format: Paperback
  • Number Of Pages: 480
  • ID: 9780195366907
  • weight: 594
  • ISBN10: 0195366905

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