The Conservative Human Rights Revolution radically reinterprets the origins of the European human rights system, arguing that its conservative inventors envisioned the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) not only as an instrument to contain communism and fascism in continental Europe, but also to allow them to pursue a controversial political agenda at home and abroad. Just as the Supreme Court of the United States had sought to overturn Franklin
Roosevelt's New Deal, a European Court of Human Rights was meant to constrain the ability of democratically elected governments to implement left-wing policies that conservatives believed violated their basic liberties, above all in Britain and France.
Human rights were also evoked in the service of reviving a romantic Christian vision of European identity, one that contrasted sharply with the modernizing projects of technocrats such as Jean Monnet. Rather than follow the model of the United Nations, conservatives such as Winston Churchill grounded their appeals for new human rights safeguards in an older understanding of European civilization. All told, these efforts served as a basis for reconciliation between Germany and the rest of
Europe, while justifying the exclusion of communists and colonized peoples from the ambit of European human rights law.
Marco Duranti illuminates the history of internationalism and international law - from the peace conferences and world's fairs of the early twentieth century to the grand pan-European congresses of the postwar period - and elucidates Churchill's Europeanism, as well as his critical contribution to the genesis of the ECHR. Drawing on previously unpublished material from twenty archives in six countries, The Conservative Human Rights Revolution revisits the ethical foundations of European
integration after WWII and offers a new perspective on the crisis in which the European Union finds itself today.
Marco Duranti is Lecturer in Modern European and International History at the University of Sydney, where he directs the Nation Empire Globe Research Cluster. He has been a Fulbright Scholar at the European University Institute, a Fox Fellow at the Paris Institute of Political Studies, and a Postdoctoral Fellow in the Max Planck Research Group on History and Memory at the University of Konstanz.