The 2010 Kampala Amendments to the Rome Statute empowered the International Criminal Court to prosecute the 'supreme crime' under international law: the crime of aggression. This landmark commentary provides the first analysis of the history, theory, legal interpretation and future of the crime of aggression. As well as explaining the positions of the main actors in the negotiations, the authoritative team of leading scholars and practitioners set out exactly how countries have themselves criminalized illegal war-making in domestic law and practice. In light of the anticipated activation of the Court's jurisdiction over this crime in 2017, this work offers, over two volumes, a comprehensive legal analysis of how to understand the material and mental elements of the crime of aggression as defined at Kampala. Alongside The Travaux Preparatoires of the Crime of Aggression (Cambridge, 2011), this commentary provides the definitive resource for anyone concerned with the illegal use of force.
Claus Kress is Professor of Criminal Law and Public International Law and Director of the Institute of International Peace and Security Law at the University of Cologne. Previously, he practiced in the German Federal Ministry of Justice on matters of criminal law and international law, and he has been a member of Germany's delegations in the negotiations regarding the International Criminal Court since 1998. In 2014, he was winner of the M. C. Bassiouni Justice Award. Stefan Barriga served as the principal legal advisor to the chief negotiators on the crime of aggression from 2003 to 2010, and is widely acknowledged as the main expert in charge of the drafting of the Working Group's proposals, papers and reports during that period. He is now the Deputy Permanent Representative of the Principality of Liechtenstein to the United Nations in New York.
Volume 1: Introduction: the crime of aggression and the international legal order Claus Kress; Part I. History: 1. World War I, Wilhelm II and Article 227: the origin of the idea of 'aggression' in international criminal law Kirsten Sellars; 2. The crimes against peace precedent Carrie McDougall; 3. The legacy of the Tokyo dissents on 'crimes against peace' Kirsten Sellars; 4. The General Assembly's definition of the act of aggression Thomas Bruha; 5. The practice of the Security Council regarding the concept of aggression Nicolaos Strapatsas; 6. The International Court of Justice and the concept of aggression Dapo Akande and Antonios Tzanakopoulos; 7. The International Law Commission's work on aggression James Crawford; 8. Negotiations on the Rome Statute (1995-1998) Roger S. Clark; Part II. Theory: 9. Just war theory and the crime of aggression Larry May; 10. The modern doctrinal debate on the crime of aggression Florian Jessberger; 11. The specificity of the crime of aggression Astrid Reisinger Coracini and Pal Wrange; 12. Aggression and international human rights law William Schabas; Part III. Crime of Aggression under Current International Law: 13. Interpreting the crime of aggression Leena Grover; 14. The state conduct element Claus Kress; 15. Individual conduct Roger S. Clark; 16. General principles of international criminal law Roger S. Clark; 17. Entry into force and conditions for the exercise of jurisdiction: cross-cutting issues Stefan Barriga and Niels Blokker; 18. Conditions for the exercise of jurisdiction based on Security Council referrals Niels Blokker and Stefan Barriga; 19. Conditions for the exercise of jurisdiction based on state referrals and proprio motu investigations Stefan Barriga and Niels Blokker; 20. Immunities Helmut Kreicker; 21. The crime of aggression, domestic prosecutions and complementarity Pal Wrange; 22. The judicial function of the pre-trial division Eleni Chaitidou, Franziska Eckelmans and Barbara Roche; 23. Victims of the crime of aggression Erin Pobjie; Part IV. Crime of Aggression and National Law: 24. Croatia Ksenija Turkovic and Maja Munivrana Vajda; 25. Germany Elisa Hoven; 26. Estonia Andres Parmas; 27. Russia Svetlana Glotova; 28. United Kingdom Roger O'Keefe. Volume 2: 29. The Arab world Mohamed M. El Zeidy; 30. Asia Nina H. B. Jorgensen; 31. (Extended) synopsis: the crime of aggression under domestic criminal law Astrid Reisinger Coracini; 32. Selected national laws and regional instruments on the crime of aggression Astrid Reisinger Coracini; Part V. Crime of Aggression and the Future World Order: Section 1. Actors' Views: 33. Brazil Marcel Biato and Marcelo Boehlke; 34. China Zhou Lulu; 35. France Edwige Belliard; 36. Germany Susanne Wasum-Rainer; 37. India Narinder Singh; 38. Iran Djamchid Momtaz and Esmaeil Baghaei Hamaneh; 39. Israel Roy Schoendorf and Daniel Geron; 40. Japan Ichiro Komatsu; 41. Republic of Korea (South Korea) Young Sok Kim; 42. Norway Rolf Einar Fife; 43. Russia Gennady Kuzmin and Igor Panin; 44. South Africa Andre Stemmet; 45. United Kingdom Christopher Whomersley; 46. United States Harold Hongju Koh and Todd F. Buchwald; 47. Egypt Namira Negm; 48. Civil society Noah Weisbord; Section 2. Scholarly Reflections: 49. 'A trap to the innocent ...' Martti Koskenniemi; 50. Unjust war and the crime of aggression Jeff McMahan; 51. What is the specific evil of aggression? Frederic Megret; 52. The crime of bootstrapping Jens David Ohlin; 53. Amending the crime of aggression under the Rome Statute David Scheffer; Epilogue: the long journey to Kampala - a personal memoir Benjamin B. Ferencz.