Undertaken at orphanages in Russia, this study tests the role of early social and emotion experience in the development of children. Children were exposed to either multiple caregivers who performed routine duties in a perfunctory manner with minimal interaction or fewer caregivers who were trained to engage in warm, responsive, and developmentally appropriate interactions during routine care. Engaged and responsive caregivers were associated with substantial improvements in child development and these findings provide a rationale for making similar improvements in other institutions, programs, and organizations.
ABSTRACT. I. THEORETICAL, EMPIRICAL, AND PRACTICAL RATIONALE. II. BABY HOMES IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION. III. RESEARCH DESIGN AND INTERVENTIONS. IV. ASSESSMENTS. V. EVIDENCE THAT THE INTERVENTIONS WERE IMPLEMENTED AS PLANNED. VI. CAREGIVER BEHAVIOR ON THE WARDS (HOME INVENTORY). VII. ORPHANAGE STAFF ATTITUDES, PERCEPTIONS, AND FEELINGS. VIII. INTERVENTION EFFECTS ON PHYSICAL GROWTH. IX. THE EFFECTS OF THE INTERVENTION ON CHILDREN'S GENERAL BEHAVIORAL DEVELOPMENT (BATTELLE DEVELOPMENTAL INVENTORY). X. EFFECTS OF THE INTERVENTIONS OF CAREGIVER-CHILD INTERACTIONS DURING FREE PLAY (PCERA). XI. INTERVENTION EFFECTS ON CAREGIVER-CHILD INTERACTIONS (INFANT AFFECT MANUAL, ATTACHMENT VARIABLES). XII. SCIENTIFIC AND PRACTICAL CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS. REFERENCES. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. COMMENTARY. HOW VALID ARE THE RESULTS OF THE ST. PETERSBURG-USA ORPHANAGE. INTERVENTION STUDY AND WHAT DO THEY MEAN FOR THE WORLD'S CHILDREN? (Susan C. Crockenberg) INSTITUTIONAL EFFECTS ON CHILDREN: DESIGN ISSUES AND SUBSTANTIVE FINDINGS (Michael Rutter). EARLIER IS BETTER: A META-ANALYSIS OF 70 YEARS OF INTERVENTION. IMPROVING COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT IN INSTITUTIONALIZED CHILDREN (Marian J. Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marinus H. van IJzendoorn, and Femmie Juffer). CONTRIBUTORS. STATEMENT OF EDITORIAL POLICY.
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