The Ethics of Suicide: Historical Sources

The Ethics of Suicide: Historical Sources

By: Margaret Pabst Battin (editor)Paperback

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Description

The spectrum of views about the ethics of suicide-from the view that suicide is profoundly morally wrong to the view that it is a matter of basic human right, and from the view that it is primarily a private matter to the view that it is largely a social one-lies at the root of contemporary practical controversies over suicide. This collection of primary sources-the principal texts of philosophical interest from western and nonwestern cultures, from the major religious traditions, and from oral cultures where observer reports of traditional practices are available, spanning Europe, Asia, the Middle East, Africa, Oceania, and North and South America-is intended to facilitate exploration of such current practical issues by exhibiting the astonishingly diverse range of thinking about suicide throughout human intellectual history, in its full range of cultures and traditions. This collection has no interest in taking sides in these debates; rather, it hopes to expand the character of what have been rather linear recent debates on issues like physician-assisted suicide, suicide in social protest, and suicide bombings by making them multidimensional.

About Author

Margaret Pabst Battin is Distinguished Professor of Philosophy and Adjunct Professor of Internal Medicine, Division of Medical Ethics, at the University of Utah. She has authored, co-authored, edited, or co-edited some twenty books, among them a study of philosophical issues in suicide; a collection on age-rationing of medical care; a text on professional ethics; and a collection of her essays on end-of-life issues, The Least Worst Death (Oxford, 1994). A second collection of her essays (and fiction) on end-of-life issues, entitled Ending Life, was published in spring 2005 by Oxford University Press. She is the lead author of two multiauthored projects, Drugs and Justice: Seeking a Consistent, Coherent, Comprehensive View (Oxford, 2008) and The Patient as Victim and Vector: Ethics and Infectious Disease (Oxford, 2009).

Contents

I. Introduction: Sources of Conflict in Contemporary Controversies about Suicide ; II. Selections ; Egyptian Didactic Tale (c. 2180-c. 2050 B.C.) ; Dialogue of a Man With His Soul ; The Vedas, Brahmanas, and Upanishads (c. 1500-c. 500 B.C.) ; Rig Veda ; Brahma Purana ; Padme Purana ; Skanda Purana ; Chandogya Upanishad ; Isha Upanishad ; The Hebrew Bible and Apocrypha (c. 12-1st centuries B.C.) ; Genesis The Prohibition of Suicide ; Exodus: The Ten Commandments ; Judges: Samson and the Philistines ; I Samuel-II Samuel: Saul and his Armor-Bearer ; Job: The Sufferings of Job ; II Maccabees: The Suicide of Razis ; Daniel: Shadrach, Meschach, Abednego and the Fiery Furnace ; Homer (c. 8th century B.C.) ; The Iliad: The Deaths of Hector and Achilles ; Dharmashastra (c. 600 B.C. - 200 A.D.) ; Gautama Sutra ; Apastamba Sutra ; Vasistha Sutra ; The Laws of Manu ; The Jain Tradition (599-527 B.C. to 5th century A.D.) ; Acaranga Sutra: Liberation ; Tattvartha Sutra: Passionless End is Not Suicide ; Upasakadasah: Ten Chapters on Lay Attenders: The Story of Ananda ; Confucius (551-479 B.C.) ; The Analects ; The Book of Filial Piety ; Sophocles (c. 496-406 B.C.) ; Ajax ; Oedipus at Colonus ; Euripides (c. 484-406 B.C.) ; Suppliant Women: ; The Suicide of Evadne, Watched by her Father ; The Hippocratic Corpus (c. 450-c. 350 B.C.) ; The Hippocratic Oath ; About Maidens ; Plato (c. 424-c. 348 B.C.) ; Apology: On Being Condemned to Death ; Phaedo: The Death of Socrates ; The Republic: On Medicine ; The Laws: Recidivist Criminals and Penalties for Suicide ; Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) ; Nicomachean Ethics ; Mencius (c. 372-c. 289 B.C.) ; The Mencius ; Qu Yuan (c. 340-278 B.C.) ; Embracing Sand ; Chrysippus (c. 280-c. 206 B.C.) ; The Stoics' Five Reasons for Suicide ; Sima Qian (145 or 135-86 B.C.) ; Records of the Grand Historian: The Basic Annals of Xiang Yu ; Records of the Grand Historian: The Assassin and his Sister ; Letter in Reply to Ren Shaoqing ; Cicero (106-43 B.C.) ; Tusculan Disputations ; On Ends ; On Old Age ; The Questions of King Milinda (c. 100 B.C.-c.200 A.D.) ; On Suicide ; Livy (c. 59 B.C.-17 A.D.) ; The History of Rome: The Rape of Lucretia ; Seneca (4 B.C.-65 A.D.) ; Moral Letters to Lucilius ; Letter 70: On the Proper Time to Slip the Cable ; Letter 77: On Taking One's Own Life ; Letter 78: On the Healing Power of the Mind ; Valerius Maximus (fl. c. 14-c. 31) ; Memorable Doings and Sayings ; Pliny the Elder (23-79 A.D.) ; Natural History ; Of God ; Nature of the Earth ; Ignatius of Antioch (c. 30 or 50-117) ; Epistle: To the Romans ; Josephus (37-c. 100) ; The Jewish War ; The Defeat at Jotapa ; Mass Suicide at Masada ; Plutarch (c. 46-c. 120) ; Moralia: The Women of Miletus ; Parallel Lives: Cato the Younger ; The New Testament (c. 50-c. 150) ; Matthew: The Death of Judas ; Acts: Paul Prevents a Suicide ; I Corinthians: The Body as Temple ; Philippians: Paul in Prison: On the Desire to Die ; The Lotus Sutra (c. 50-c. 200) ; Tacitus (c. 55-c.117) ; The Annals: The Death of Seneca ; Epictetus (c. 55-c. 135) ; Discourses ; How From the Doctrine of Our Relationship to God We Are To ; Deduce its Consequences ; How We Should Bear Illness ; Of Freedom ; Pliny the Younger (62-113) ; Letters ; To Calestrius Tiro ; To Catilius Severus ; To Marcilius Nepos ; To Calpurnius Macer ; Justin Martyr (c. 100-165) ; The Second Apology: Why Christians Do Not Kill Themselves ; Clement of Alexandria (c. 150-c. 215) ; The Praises of Martyrdom ; Those Who Offered Themselves for Martyrdom Reproved ; Tertullian (c. 160-c. 220) ; To the Martyrs ; The Crown of Martyrdom ; Bhagavad-Gita (3rd century) ; The Way to Eternal Brahman ; Genesis Rabbah (compiled 3rd-5th century) ; Commentary on Genesis 9:5 ; Plotinus (204/205-270) ; from The Enneads ; Fourth Tractate: On Happiness ; Seventh Tractate: On the Primal Good and Secondary Forms of Good ; Ninth Tractate: The Reasoned 'Dismissal' ; Lactantius (c. 240-c. 320) ; The Divine Institutes ; Eusebius (c. 260-339) ; Ecclesiastical History ; Ambrose (337/340-397) ; Of Virgins: Letter to Marcellina ; Augustine (354-430) ; The City of God ; On Free Choice and the Will ; The Babylonian Talmud (3rd-6th centuries) ; Bava Kama ; Avodah Zarah ; Gittin ; Semahot ; Bana (late 6th century-early 7th century) ; Harsha-Carita, The Death of the Great King: On Sati ; Kadambari ; The Quran (traditional date c. 632-c.650) ; Surahs 2.54, 2.154, 2.195, 2.207, 3.145, 3.169-70, 4.29-30, 4.66, 4.74-80, 9.111, 18.6 ; Muhammad ibn Ismail al-Bukhari and Muslim al-Hajjaj (810-870; c. 817/821-875) ; Hadith ; Ya'qub al-Qirqisani (c. 890-c.960) ; The Book of Lighthouses and Watchtowers ; Ahmad ibn Fadlan (fl. 920s) ; The Risala: By the River Volga, 922: Viking Ship-Burial ; Abu Hayyan al-Tawhidi (922/932-1023) ; Borrowed Lights: On Suicide ; Murasaki Shikibu (970-1031) ; The Tale of Genji ; Jetsun Milarepa (c. 1052-c. 1135) ; Songs of Milarepa ; Abu-Hamid Muhammad al-Ghazali (1056-1111) ; Revival of the Religious Sciences ; Tosafot (12th-14th centuries) ; On Avodah Zarah 18a ; Tosafot on the Torah ; Henry de Bracton (c. 1210-1268) ; On the Laws and Customs of England: Where a Man Commits ; Felony Upon His Own Person ; The Norse Sagas (c. 1220-c.1400) ; Ynglinga Saga: Odin Marks Himself with a Spear [1930] [1844 ; Gautrek's Saga: The Family Cliff ; Njal's Saga: The Burning of Njal ; Thomas Aquinas (c. 1225-1274) ; Summa Theologiae: Whether One is Allowed to Kill Oneself ; Angela of Foligno (1248-1309) ; The Book of Divine Consolation ; Dante Alighieri (1265-1321) ; The Divine Comedy: Inferno ; Abu 'Abd Allah Muhammad ibn Battuta (1304-1368/69 A.D.) ; from Rihla: On Sati and Religious Suicide ; Thomas More (1478-1535) ; Utopia ; A Dialogue of Comfort Against Tribulation ; Martin Luther (1483-1546) ; Table-Talk ; Francisco de Vitoria (c.1483/92-1546) ; Lecture on Homicide ; Commentary on [Thomas Aquinas] Summa Theologiae IIa IIae Q. 64 ; John Calvin (1509-1564) ; Sermons on Job ; Solomon ben Jehiel Luria (1510-1573) ; On Bava Kamma ; Central and South American Native Cultures ; (documented 1526-1621) ; Aztec ; Codex Chimalpopoca (1570) ; The Death of Quetzalcoatl ; Letters from Mexico (1519-20) ; (Hernan Cortes, 1519-20) ; General History of the Things of New Spain (The Florentine Codex) ; The Festival in the Month of Toxcatl ; The Sun, Moon, and Stars, and the Binding of the ; Years ; (Bernardino de Sahagun, c. 1565) ; Monarchia Indiana ; Chimalpopoca's Victory in Death ; (Juan de Torquemada, 1609-15) ; In Defense of the Indians ; (Bartolome de Las Casas, 1548-1550) ; Maya: ; Popol Vuh: ; History of the Twins Hunahpu and Xbalanque ; How the People Obtained Fire ; (dictated in K'iche', c. 1554-1558; Francisco Ximenez, c. 1701) ; An Account of the Affairs of Yucatan ; Ixtab: Goddess of the Gallows ; (Diego de Landa, c. 1570) ; Caribbean: ; Natural History of the West Indies ; Suicide on the Death of the Chief ; (Gonzalo Fernandez de Oviedo, 1526) ; La Historia General de las Indias ; Suicide, Smallpox, and the Arrival of the Spaniards ; (Francisco Lopez de Gomara, 1552) ; Hhistory of the New World ; Suffering at the Hands of the Spaniards ; (Girolamo Benzoni, 1565) ; Inca: ; The Indias ; The Burial of Wives ; (Pedro de Cieza de Leon, 1553) ; Natural & Moral History of the Indies ; Of Superstitions They Used to the Dead ; (Jose de Acosta, 1589) ; La Extirpacion de la Idolatria en el Peru ; What Those Who Hang Themselves Really Are ; (Pablo Jose de Arriaga, 1621) ; Michel de Montaigne (1533-1592 ; Of Cannibals ; A Custom of the Island of Cea ; Abu'l Fazl ibn Mubarak (1551-1602) ; Biography of the Emperor Akbar: On Jauhar and Saka ; Willliam Shakespeare (1564-1616) ; Hamlet, Prince of Denmark ; Antony and Cleopatra ; John Donne (1572-1631) ; Biathanatos ; Robert Burton (1577-1640) ; Anatomy of Melancholy ; John Sym (1581?-1638) ; Lifes Preservative Against Self-Killing ; Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) ; Leviathan ; A Dialogue of the Common Laws of England ; Baruch Spinoza (1632-1677) ; Ethics ; Samuel von Pufendorf (1632-1694) ; Of the Law of Nature and Nations ) ; John Locke (1632-1704) ; Second Treatise of Government: <"Of the State of Nature> " ; Samuel Pepys (1633-1703) ; Diary, January 21, 1668 ; Huang Liuhong (1633-c. 1710) ; A Complete Book Concerning Happiness and Benevolence ; North American Native Cultures (documented 1635-1970) ; Northeast: ; Ojibwa: ; Mrs. Cochran Becoming a Windigo ; (R. Landes, 1932-1935) ; Micmac: ; The Gaspesians: Suicide, Shame, and Despair. ; (Chrestien Le Clercq, 1675-1686) ; Huron: ; Le Jeune's Relation ; (Jean de Brebeuf; Father Paul le Jeune 1635-36) ; The Suicide of Children ; (Anthony F.C. Wallace, citing LeMercier, 1600's) ; Iroquois: ; Suicide ; (Father Joseph Francois Lafitau, 1712-17) ; Suicide of the Widowed ; (Baron de Lahontan, 1703) ; The Song of Death ; (Baron de Lahontan, 1703) ; Seneca: ; Murder and Suicide (Mrs. Mary Jemison, 1817) ; The Code of Handsome Lake ; (Edward Cornplanter, Arthur C. Parker, 1850, 1913 ; The Suicide as Earthbound ; (Jesse Cornplanter) ; Southeast: ; Cherokee: ; Varieties of Shame: Time of Death, Pollution, and the Disfigurement of Smallpox ; (James Adair, 1775) ; Natchez: ; The Favorite Wife of the Chief Sun ; (Jean-Bernard Bossu, 1751-1762) ; Great Plains: ; Comanche: ; Elderly Persons <"Thrown Away> " ; (Ernest Wallace & Edward Adamson Hoebel, 1933, 1945) ; Suicide from Overwhelming Shame ; (Edward Adamson Hoebel, 1940) ; Arapaho: ; The Rarity of Suicide; When the Camp Moved ; (M. Inez Hilger, 1935-1942) ; Sioux: ; Suicide among Sioux Women ; (John Bradbury, 1809-11) ; Cheyenne: ; Two Twists in Battle ; (Karl N. Llewellyn and Edward Adamson Hoebel, 1941) ; Mandan: ; Smallpox and the End of a Household ; (Alfred W. Bowers, 1930-1931) ; Crow: ; Crazy-Dog Wishing to Die ; (Robert H. Lowie, 1913) ; The Lowest of the Low ; (William Wildschut, 1918-1927; 1960) ; Gros Ventre: ; Singing the 'Brave-Song' ; (Regina Flannery, 1940-48) ; Blackfoot: ; Suicide to Avoid Marriage ; (George Bird Grinnell, 1888) ; The Sandhills ; (Adolf Hungry Wolf, 1977) ; Kit-sta-ka Rejoins her Husband After the Sun Dance ; (Walter McClintock, 1910) ; When Wakes-Up-Last Murdered All of his Children ; (Walter McClintock, 1968) ; Southwest: ; Navajo: ; Notes on Navajo Suicide ; (Leland C. Wyman and Betty Thorne, 1945) ; The Destination of Witches and Suicides ; (Leland C. Wyman, W.W. Hill, and Iva Osanai, 1942) ; Reasons for Suicide ; (D. Leighton and C. Kluckhohn, 1947) ; Ending One's Life by Wishing to Die ; (Franc Johnson Newcomb, 1915-1940) ; Crazy Violence ; (B. Kaplan and D. Johnson, 1964) ; Navajo Suicide ; (Jerrold E. Levy, 1965) ; Hopi: ; Making Arrangements for Suicide ; (Edmund Nequatewa, 1936) ; How the Hopi Marked the Boundary Line ; (Edmund Nequatewa, 1936) ; Girls Going Qovisti ; (Mischa Titiev, 1932-1940) ; Ute: ; Postmenopausal Women ; (John Wesley Powell, 1867-1880) ; Pueblo: ; Suicides as Cloud Beings ; (Elsie Clews Parsons, 1939) ; Ritual Revenge ; (Ruth Benedict, 1934) ; Jicarilla Apache: ; Apache War Customs ; (M.E. Opler, 1936) ; Mojave: ; The First Death: Matavilye, and Suicide in Childbirth, Weaning, and Twins ; (George Devereux, 1961) ; West and Northwest Coast: ; Pomo: ; Psychological Suicide ; (B.W. Aginsky, 1934-35) ; Wintu and others: ; Suicide in Northeastern California ; (Erminie W. Voegelin, 1937) ; Klamath: ; The Stigma of Suicide ; (Lucy Thompson, 1916) ; Salish ; Strained Sex Relations ; (V. F. Ray, 1928-1930) ; Salish ; Suicide by Hanging ; (W. Cline, 1930) ; Kwakiutl ; Shame ; (Ruth Benedict, 1934) ; Chilkotin/Talkotin ; Barbarities Practised on Widows ; (Ross Cox, citing M'Gillivray 1794-95) ; Tlingit ; Holding Others Responsible for Suicide ; (Aurel Krause, 1881-1882; 1956) ; Slaves: An Honor to Die at the Master's Funeral ; (Albert F. Niblack, 1887) ; Paying Damages for Suicide ; (Livingston F. Jones, 1893-1914; 1914) ; Kaska ; Suicide and Intoxication ; (John Joseph Honigmann, 1943-1945) ; Daidoji Yuzan (1639-1730) ; Beginner's Book of Bushido ; Increase Mather (1639-1723) ; A Call to the Tempted ; Chikamatsu Monzaemon (1653-1725) ; The Love Suicides at Sonesaki ; John Adams (1662-1720) ; An Essay Concerning Self-Murther ; Cotton Mather (1663-1728) ; Memorable Providences Relating to Witchcrafts and Possessions ; Isaac Watts (1674-1748) ; A Defense Against the Temptation to Self-Murther ; Montesquieu (1689-1755) ; Persian Letters ; Considerations on the Causes of the Greatness of the Romans ; and their Decline ; The Spirit of the Laws ; Voltaire (1694-1778) ; Philosophical Dictionary ; Caleb Fleming (1698-1779) ; A Dissertation Upon the Unnatural Crime of ; Self-Murder (1773) ; John Wesley (1703-1791) ; Thoughts on Suicide ; David Hume (1711-1776) ; Essay on Suicide ; To John Home of Ninewells ; Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) ; Julie, or The New Heloise, Letters 114, 115 ; William Blackstone (1723-1780) ; Commentaries on the Laws of England: Homicide ; Paul-Henri Thiry, Baron d'Holbach (1723-1789) ; The System of Nature ; Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) ; Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals ; The Metaphysical Principles of Virtue: Man's Duty to Himself Insofar as ; He Is an Animal Being ; Lectures on Ethics: Duties Towards The Body in Regard to Life ; Cesare Beccaria (1738-1794) ; Of Crimes and Punishments ; Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) ; A Bill for Proportioning Crimes and Punishments in Cases Heretofore Capital ; Letter to Dr. Samuel Brown, July 14, 1813 ; Olaudah Equiano (c. 1745-1797) ; The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavus ; Vassa, the African, Written by Himself ; Richard Hey (1745-1835) ; Dissertation on Suicide ; Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) ; Principles of Penal Law ; Principles of Judicial Procedure ; Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832) ; The Sorrows of Young Werther ; Poetry and Truth from My Own Life ; William Godwin (1756-1836) ; Enquiry Concerning Political Justice ; Memoirs of the Author of a Vindication of the Rights of Woman ; Johann Gottlieb Fichte (1762-1814) ; The Science of Ethics as Based on the Science of Knowledge ; Ephraim Zalman Margolioth (1762-1828) ; Bet Efrayim ; Ann Louise Germaine de Stael (1766-1817) ; On the Influence of the Passions ; Reflections on Suicide ; Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770-1831) ; The Philosophy of Right ; Novalis (1772-1801) ; Novices of Sais ; Jean-Etienne-Dominique Esquirol (1772-1840) ; Mental Maladies: Treatise on Insanity ; Rammohun Roy (1774-1833) ; Conference Between an Advocate For, and an Opponent Of, the Practice of Burning Widows Alive ; Thomas de Quincey (1785-1859) ; Essays in Philosophy: On Suicide ; Arthur Schopenhauer (1788-1860) ; The World as Will and Idea ; Studies in Pessimism: On Suicide ; Giacomo Leopardi (1798-1837) ; Dialogue between Plotinus and Porphyry ; John Stuart Mill (1806-1873) ; Autobiography ; Deaths of Casimir Perier and Georges Cuvier ; Penal Code for India ; Diary, March 8, 1854 ; On Liberty ; Forbes Winslow (1810-1874) ; The Anatomy of Suicide: Can Suicide ; Be Prevented by Legislative Enactment? ; Karl Marx (1818-1883) ; Peuchet on Suicide ; Florence Nightingale (1820-1910) ; Note, Christmas Eve, 1850 ; From Nightingale's draft novel ; Draft for Suggestions for Thought to Searchers After Religious Truth (1860) ; Notes on Nursing ; Note to Benjamin Jowett (c. 1866) ; Reflections on Robert Falconer (1868) ; <"Truth and Feeling,> " 1871 or later ; Mysticism and Eastern Religions ; Oceanic Cultures (documented 1820-1983) ; Melanesia ; Fiji: ; The Principal Wife of the Chief ; (William Mariner, 1820) ; Elderly Parents and the Time to Die ; (Charles Wilkes, 1845) ; Deaths of the Old Chief and his Wives (Thomas Williams, 1858) ; Solomon Islands: ; Tikopian Attitudes Towards Suicide ; (Raymond Firth, 1967) ; Papua New Guinea: ; Kiriwina/The Trobriand Islands: ; Suicide as an Act of Justice ; Expiation and Insult: Jumping from a Palm ; (Bronislaw Malinowski, 1916, 1926) ; The Kaliai: Good Death, Bad Death ; (David R. Counts and Dorothy Ayers Counts, 1983-84) ; Micronesia: ; Guam: ; A Tale of Two Lovers: Tying Their Hair Together ; (Freycinet, 1819) ; Chuuk: ; Sea Spirit Spasms ; (Frank Joseph Mahony, (1950-1968), 1970) ; Group Rejection and Suicide ; (Thomas Gladwin and Seymour Bernard Sarason, 1953) ; Polynesia: ; Samoa: ; "Who Will Go With Me?" ; (George Turner, 1884) ; Tonga: ; The Love-Sick of Vavau ; (Basil Thomson, 1886-1891, 1894) ; Niue Island: ; Traditions of Niue ; (Edwin M. Loeb, 1926) ; Pukapuka, Cook Islands: ; After Defeat in Fighting: Burying Oneself Alive ; (Ernest Beaglehole and Pearl Beaglehole, 1938) ; Marquesas: ; Coconut Rites for Suicide ; Tahia-noho-uu (E. S. Craighill Handy, 1920-1921, 1923, 1930) ; Mangareva, Gambier Islands: ; Cliff Suicide: The Privilege of Women ; (Te Rangi Hiroa [Sir Peter H. Buck], 1938) ; New Zealand: ; The Maori Myth of Tane ; The Myth of Rakuru ; (John White, 1887) ; Maori: Tupu and Mate ; (J. Prtyz Johansen, 1954) ; The Spirit ; The Dying Maori Chief and his Old and Young Wives ; (Frederick Edward Maning, 1922) ; Hawaii ; The Secrecy of the Bones of a Chief ; (Laura C. Green and Martha Warren Beckwith, 1926) ; Fyodor Dostoevsky (1821-1881) ; The Diary of a Writer ; In Lieu of a Preface on the Great and Little Bears, on the ; Prayer of the Great Goethe, And, Generally, on Bad Habits ; Two Suicides ; The Verdict ; Arbitrary Assertions ; A Few Words About Youth ; On Suicides and Haughtiness ; The Boy Celebrating His Saint's Day ; The Dream of a Strange Man: A Fantastic Story ; Robert Ingersoll (1833-1899) ; Is Suicide a Sin? ; A.B. Mitford, Lord Redesdale (1837-1916) ; An Account of the Hara-Kiri ; Arctic Cultures (documented 1840-1940) ; Eskimo of Diomede Island ; Father and Son ; (documented by Weyer 1932) ; Aleut ; Are the Aleut Prone to Commit Suicide? ; (documented by Veniaminov, 1840) ; St. Lawrence Eskimo ; Notes on Eskimo Patterns of Suicide ; (documented by Leighton and Hughes 1940) ; Ingalik ; Suicide as Shameful or Insane ; (documented by Osgood, 1937) ; Copper Eskimo ; Death Taboos ; (documented by Rasmussen 1921-24) ; Suicide as Rare ; (documented by Jenness 1913-18) ; Eskimo of Cumberland Sound ; Man's Two Souls: The Afterlife ; (documented by Boas 1883-84) ; Caribou Eskimo ; Moral Rights, Social Obligations ; (documented by Birket-Smith 1921-24) ; Netsilik Eskimo ; Famine; On the Treatment of the Aged ; (documented by Rasmussen 1921-24) ; Iglulik Eskimo ; The Moon Spirit ; Death, and Life in the Land of the Dead ; Those Who Were Left Behind ; (documented by Rasmussen 1921-24) ; Hudson Bay Inuit ; Desertion of Old Women ; (documented by Turner 1882-84, 1889-90) ; Eskimo of Baffin Island ; Theological Questions ; (documented by Hall 1860-62) ; Tribal Life ; (documented by Bilby 1923) ; Labrador Eskimo ; Respect for the Aged ; (documented by Hawkes 1914) ; Greenland Eskimo ; The Old Woman and the Cliff ; (documented by Nansen 1893) ; Eduard von Hartmann (1842-1906) ; Philosophy of the Unconscious ; William James (1842-1910) ; The Principles of Psychology ; Is Life Worth Living? ; Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900) ; Thus Spake Zarathustra: Voluntary Death ; The Twilight of the Idols: A Moral for Doctors ; African Traditional SubSaharan Cultures (documented 1853-) ; African Origin Myths: Man Desires Death ; [compiled by Hans Abrahamsson] ; Dogon: ; The Souls of the Dogons ; [documented by Solange de Ganay, field date 1937-39] ; LoDagaa: ; The Day of Death: Restraining the Bereaved to Prevent Suicide ; [documented by Jack Goody, 1962] ; Akan: ; The Detection of Witches: Ordeal and Punishment ; Ashanti: ; Law and Constitution: A Suicide's Trial ; [documented by Capt. R. S. Rattray, 1929] ; Funeral Rites for Babies and Kings ; [documented by Capt. R. S. Rattray, 1929] ; [1923/27] ; The Price of Intrigue with Women of Royal Blood ; [documented by A. B. Ellis, 1887] ; Fante: ; Killing Oneself <"Upon the Head of Another": The Tragedy of ; Adjuah Amissah ; [documented by Brodie Cruickshank, 1853] ; Ga: ; The Prohibition of Death ; [documented by M. J. Field, 1937] ; Ewe: ; The Criminality of Suicide ; [documented by A.B. Ellis, 1890] ; Yoruba: ; The Kings of the Yoruba ; [documented by Samuel Johnson, 1897] ; Sango: The God of Thunder and Lightning ; The King's Natural and Official Mothers ; Children Born to Die ; Wearing the Death Cloth ; The Fate of Despots ; Yoruba Laws and Customs: Suicide ; [documented by A. K. Ajisafe, 1924] ; Igbo: ; Evil Spirits ; [documented by Northcote W. Thomas, 1913] ; Sacrifices, Death, and Burial ; [documented by G. T. Basden, 1938] ; A Murderer Must Hang Himself ; An Old Woman's Prearranged Funeral ; [documented by G. T. Basden, 1921] ; Zulu: ; The Timely Death ; Godusa: The Old Woman and the Antbear's Hole ; [documented by R.C.A. Samuelson, 1929] ; Ukugodusa: The First Woman Who Became a Christian ; [documented by L. H. Samuelson, 1912] ; The Burial of a King ; [documented by R.C.A. Samuelson, 1929] ; Banyoro: ; The Ghost of a Suicide ; Dinka: ; The Folktale of the Four Truths ; Burial Alive: The Master of the Fishing-Spear ; Hindu Widow, Anonymous (1889) ; Hindu Widows. By One of Themselves ; Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) ; The Psychopathology of Everyday Life ; Contributions to a Discussion on Suicide ; Mourning and Melancholia ; The Psychogenesis of a Case of Homosexuality in a Woman ; The Economic Problem of Masochism ; Emile Durkheim (1858-1917) ; Suicide ; Charlotte Perkins Gilman (1860-1935) ; The Living of Charlotte Perkins Gilman ; Suicide Note, August 17, 1935 ; The Right to Die-I ; Mohandas K. Gandhi (1869-1948) ; Indian Home Rule ; An Autobiography: The Story of My Experiments with Truth ; Non-Violence in Peace and War ; Alfred Adler (1870-1937) ; Suicide ; Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961) ; Letters: ; July 10, 1946; ; July 25, 1946; ; Oct. 13, 1951; ; Nov. 10, 1955 ; John Haynes Holmes (1879-1964) ; Is Suicide Justifiable? ; Virginia Woolf (1882-1941) ; Mrs. Dalloway ; A Room of One's Own ; Journal, May 15, 1941 ; Letter to Leonard Woolf, March 18, 1941 ; Paul Tillich (1886-1965) ; The Courage to Be ; Ludwig Wittgenstein (1889-1951) ; Notebooks 1914-1916 ; Letters ; Mao Zedong (1893-1976) ; The Suicide of Miss Zhao ; Szmul Zygielbojm (1895-1943) ; Letter to the President and Prime Minister of the Republic of Poland ; Paul-Louis Landsberg (1901-1944) ; The Moral Problem of Suicide ; Dietrich Bonhoeffer (1906-1945) ; Ethics: Last and Penultimate Things ; Albert Camus (1913-1960) ; The Myth of Sisyphus ; Notebooks ; Japanese Naval Special Attack Force (Kamikaze Corps) (b. 1920s) ; Last Letters Home (1944-1945) ; Murtaza Mutahhari (1920-1979) ; The Martyr: On Jihad, Suicide and Martyrdom ; Thich Nhat Hanh (1926-) ; The Lotus in a Sea of Fire ; Mary Rose Barrington (1926- ) ; Apologia for Suicide ; Daniel Callahan (1930- ) ; Reason, Self-determination, and Physician-Assisted Suicide ; Sylvia Plath (1932-1963) ; The Bell Jar ; Peter Y. Windt (?-) ; The Concept of Suicide

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