The crucial texts of Marx's later years - notably "The Civil War in France" and "Critique of the Gotha Programme" - count among his most important work. These articles include a searching analysis of the tragic but inspiring failure of the Paris Commune, as well as essays on German unification, the Irish question, the Polish national movement and the possibility of revolution in Russia. The founding documents of the First international and polemical pieces attacking the disciples of Proudhon and Bakunin and the advocates of reformism, by contrast, reveal a tactical mastery that has influenced revolutionary movements ever since. In a new introduction, the renowned Marxist David Harvey sheds light on the evolution of Marx's notions of democracy and politics.
Karl Marx was not only the great theorist of capitalism, he was also a superb journalist, politician and historian. He studied law and philosophy at the universities of Bonn and Berlin, completing his doctorate in 1841. Expelled from Prussia in 1844, he took up residence first in Paris and then in London where, in 1867, he published his magnum opus Capital. A cofounder of the International Workingmen's Association in 1864, Marx died in London in 1883