The history of Ptolemaic Egypt has usually been doubly isolated--separated both from the history of other Hellenistic states and from the history of ancient Egypt. The Last Pharaohs, the first detailed history of Ptolemaic Egypt as a state, departs radically from previous studies by putting the Ptolemaic state firmly in the context of both Hellenistic and Egyptian history. More broadly still, J. G. Manning examines the Ptolemaic dynasty in the context of the study of authoritarian and premodern states, shifting the focus of study away from modern European nation-states and toward ancient Asian ones. By analyzing Ptolemaic reforms of Egyptian economic and legal structures, The Last Pharaohs gauges the impact of Ptolemaic rule on Egypt and the relationships that the Ptolemaic kings formed with Egyptian society. Manning argues that the Ptolemies sought to rule through--rather than over--Egyptian society. He tells how the Ptolemies, adopting a pharaonic model of governance, shaped Egyptian society and in turn were shaped by it.
Neither fully Greek nor wholly Egyptian, the Ptolemaic state within its core Egyptian territory was a hybrid that departed from but did not break with Egyptian history. Integrating the latest research on archaeology, papyrology, theories of the state, and legal history, as well as Hellenistic and Egyptian history, The Last Pharaohs draws a dramatically new picture of Egypt's last ancient state.
J. G. Manning is professor of classics and history at Yale University, and a senior research scholar at Yale Law School. He is the author of Land and Power in Ptolemaic Egypt and the coeditor of The Ancient Economy: Evidence and Models.
List of Illustrations ix Preface xi Abbreviations xv INTRODUCTION 1 CHAPTER 1: Egypt in the First Millennium BC 19 CHAPTER 2: The Historical Understanding of the Ptolemaic State 29 CHAPTER 3: Moving beyond Despotism, Economic Planning, and State Banditry 55 Ptolemaic Egypt as a Premodern State CHAPTER 4: Shaping a New State 73 The Political Economy of the Ptolemies CHAPTER 5: Creating a New Economic Order 117 Economic Life and Economic Policy under the Ptolemies CHAPTER 6: Order and Law 165 Shaping the Law in a New State CHAPTER 7: Conclusions 202 APPENDIX 207 The Trial Record of the Property Dispute Held at the Temple of Wepwawet in Asyut, Upper Egypt, 170 BC before the Local Laokritai-judges Bibliography 217 Index 259 Index of Sources 263