John Henry Newman (1801-90) was brought up in the Church of England in the Evangelical tradition. An Oxford graduate and Fellow of Oriel College, he was appointed Vicar of St Mary's Oxford in 1828; from 1839 onwards he began to have doubts about the claims of the Anglican Church and in 1845 he was received into the Roman Catholic Church. He was made a Cardinal in 1879. His influence on both the restoration of Roman Catholicism in England and the advance of Catholic ideas in the Church of England was profound. Volume VIII covers a turbulent period in Newman's life with the publication of Tract 90. His attempt to show the compatibility of the 39 Articles with Catholic doctrine caused a storm both in the University of Oxford and in the Church. He and others were horrified by the establishment of a joint Anglo-Prussian Bishopric in Jerusalem, considering it an attempt to give Apostolical succession to an heretical church. In 1842 he moved away from the hubbub of Oxford life to nearby Littlemore.