The Longman Handbook for Writers and Readers: Pearson New International Edition (6th edition)

The Longman Handbook for Writers and Readers: Pearson New International Edition (6th edition)

By: Chris M. Anson (author), Robert A. Schwegler (author)Paperback

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Description

The Longman Handbook for Writers and Readers, Sixth Edition,emphasizes writing for different audiences, explores the connection between reading and writing, and presents superior writing across the curriculum coverage while also providing all the handbook basics. A comprehensive reference to writing, research, documentation, and grammar, The Longman Handbook explores the differing audiences, purposes, and conventions of various communities of writers and readers, and offers students concrete strategies for adapting their writing to meet varying rhetorical situations. While emphasizing the academic community, The Longman Handbook also explores the genres of writing that students can expect to find in public and workplace communities. Revised and expanded discussions of writing in the disciplines, different communities' rhetorical situations, visual argument, researching online, and online writing continue to ensure that students have the practical guidance they need to write effectively in today's changing environment.

Contents

PART 1 WRITING FOR READERS 1 Writers, Readers, and Communities Academic, public, and work communities 1 Communities in action 2 Choices and limits Identifying electronic communities 2 Discovering and Planning Getting started 1 Try informal writing 2 Use listing 3 Ask strategic questions Keeping a writing/reading journal 1 How to keep a reading and writing journal 2 Thinking, writing, and discovering Structuring ideas and information 1 Draw a cluster 2 Create a tree diagram 3 Build a time sequence 4 Create a problem-solution grid 5 Outline Planning: Paper in progress 3 Purpose, Thesis, and Audience Recognizing your purpose 1 Identify the focus 2 Define the purpose Using purpose to guide your writing 1 Rough out a purpose structure Defining a thesis or main idea 1 Turn topics into theses 2 Complicate or extend your rough thesis 3 Expand your thesis with specifics 4 Modify your thesis Different kinds of thesis statements Recognizing your audience Specific readers and communities of readers Adapting to readers and communities of readers 4 Drafting From planning to drafting 1 Draft in manageable parts 2 Develop a general structure 3 Assess your purpose and redraft Drafting strategies 1 Write about your writing 2 Draft quickly 3 Semidraft 4 Talk it out or take a break Collaborative drafting 1 Do parallel drafting 2 Do team drafting 3 Do intensive drafting 5 Revising, Editing, and Proofreading Major revisions 1 Redraft unworkable material 2 Reorganize poorly arranged paragraphs or sections 3 Add new material 4 Delete unnecessary or redundant material Minor revisions 1 Revise for sense 2 Revise for style 3 Revise for economy Collaborative revising 1 Respond helpfully 2 Make the most of response 3 Workplace collaboration Revising: Paper in progress Editing your own writing 1 Final editing for economy and style 2 Editing for grammatical problems Collaborative editing Editing on the computer 1 What computer editors can do 2 What computer editor can't do Proofreading 6 Paragraphs Focused paragraphs Creating paragraph focus 1 Topic sentence at the beginning 2 Topic sentence plus a limiting or clarifying sentence 3 Topic sentence at the end 4 Topic sentence implied rather than stated Paragraph coherence Creating paragraph coherence 1 Repeating words and phrases 2 Supplying transitions 3 Using parallel structure Developed paragraphs 1 Developing paragraphs with details 2 Creating paragraph structures Introductory and concluding paragraphs 1 Creating introductory paragraphs 2 Creating concluding paragraphs 7 Sentences Clear sentences 1 Use significant subjects 2 Avoid unnecessary nominalizations 3 Use I, we, and you as subjects 4 Be careful with strings of nouns 5 Use clear and specific verbs 6 Keep subjects and verbs clearly related Direct sentences Emphatic sentences 1 Use sentence beginnings and endings 2 Create emphatic sentence patterns 3 Use the passive voice with care Revising for variety 1 Vary sentence length 2 Vary sentence types 3 Vary sentence structure and patterns 4 Create surprise 8 Assessing Writing Assessing your own writing 1 Saying what you want to say 2 Sharing what you want to share 3 Being honest about things that didn't work or shortcuts you took 4 Recognizing what you didn't understand 5 Deciding on a revision plan Assessing someone else's writing 1 Deciding what makes a difference for you as a reader 2 Believing and doubting 3 Prompting change 4 Working with others How others assess your writing 1 Where readers start evaluating 2 How readers move through your writing 3 How readers decide on evaluation standards Assembling and assessing your portfolio 1 Choosing the best 2 Choosing and assessing for variety 3 Introducing and explaining your selections PART 2 CRITICAL THINKING AND ARGUMENT 9 Thinking Critically and Reading Critically What is critical thinking? Building a chain of reasoning 1 Focus on conclusions 2 Include information and inferences 3 Assess evidence and reasoning 4 Consider your readers' assumptions Persuasive reasoning 1 Be well informed 2 Acknowledge other perspectives and anticipate reader's reactions 3 Be balanced and reasonable 4 Assess the appropriateness of strong bias to the occasion What is critical reading? Read to understand 1 Prereading strategies 2 Reading strategies during and after Read to respond and evaluate 1 Note responses while reading 2 Share interpretations and insights 3 Respond in writing 10 Constructing an Argument Occasions for argument 1 Existing issues 2 Potential issues 3 Identify arguable issues Developing your stance 1 Articulate your stance 2 Clarify your ideas Developing a thesis 1 Focus on an argumentative claim 2 Create a thesis statement 3 Revise your thesis statement 11 Developing, Supporting, and Documenting an Argument Developing reasons that support your claim Using varied kinds of evidence 1 Use examples 2 Use quotations and ideas from authorities 3 Use detailed information 4 Use comparisons Incorporating counterarguments Logical strategies (logos) Emotional strategies (pathos) Data-warrant-claim (Toulmin) reasoning Audience and purpose (Rogerian argument) Misleading and illogical reasoning Documented argument or position paper 1 Sample position paper 2 Comment on Paul Pusateri's Paper 12 Creating a Visual Argument Explaining 1 Calling attention to an issue 2 Explaining an issue or problem Providing evidence Reading images critically Multimodal materials PART 3 PRESENTING YOUR WORK 13 Designing Documents Goals of document design Format choice 1 Consider your rhetorical situation and readers' needs 2 Determine the form and shape of your document Layout 1 Use visual cues 2 Arrange information effectively Typeface choices Visuals 1 Table organize information 2 Graphs and charts represent relationships among data 3 Other visual devices serve varied purposes Web pages 1 Establishing a purpose and a persona for your Web page 2 Considering your audience Model documents 14 Multimodal Presentations Multimodal compositions 1 Photographs 2 Advertisements 3 Videos 4 Oral presentations Analyzing multimodal presentations 1 Purpose and focus 2 Detail and explanation 3 Design Composing multimodal presentations 1 Developing your craft 2 Computer software Evaluating multimodal presentations 15 Writing Online Online writing 1 Understanding your online audience and your purpose 2 Creating an online persona 3 Netiquette Avoiding plagiarism and acting ethically online 1 Always document or credit information borrowed from others 2 Do your own work 3 Know the rules E-mail choices 1 Elements of email 2 Email appearance 3 Using the functions of email Participating in online communities 1 Discussion lists 2 Web-based forums: Blogs 3 Real-time writing Participating in virtual classrooms 1 Using electronic courseware 2 Taking courses online 16 Speaking Effectively Effective oral presentation 1 Planning your presentation 2 Rehearsing your presentation 3 Giving your presentation SAMPLE POWERPOINT PRESENTATION 4 Assessing the results Speech Anxiety Group presentations and other public forums 1 Effective group presentations 2 Effective speaking in public forums 3 Effective comments on boards and committees PART 4 WRITING FOR SPECIFIC COMMUNITIES 17 Academic Writing: General Education Analyzing assignments 1 Syllabus assignments 2 Detailed assignments 3 Assignment goals Common types of information-driven assignments Summaries Annotated bibliographies Literature reviews Essay exams (information-driven) 1 Sample information-driven essay exam 2 Commentary on student essay exam Short documented paper Common types of point-driven assignments Critiques Reviews Essay exams (point-driven) Position papers 18 Writing in the Arts and Humanities Writing about texts Reading literary and artistic texts 1 Reading for meaning 2 Reading for technique Writing about literary and artistic texts 1 Writing about meaning 2 Writing about technique The text analysis 1 Sample literary text analysis 2 Commentary on student text analysis Analyzing and interpreting visual texts 1 Sample visual analysis 2 Commentary on student visual analysis Reviews and critical analyses (critiques) in the arts and humanities 1 Sample critical analysis of a film 2 Commentary on student analysis 19 Writing in the Social and Natural Sciences Research in the social sciences Common types of writing assignments in social science courses Reviews of research 1 Sample social science literature review 2 Commentary on student literature review Informative reports Reports of original research Research in the natural and applied sciences Common types of writing assignments in natural and applied science courses Lab reports 1 Sample lab report 2 Commentary on student lab report Abstracts Informative reports Scientific explanation for a general audience 1 Sample scientific explanation for a general audience 2 Commentary on student scientific explanation for a general audience 20 Public Writing Goals of public writing Analyzing public audiences Types of public writing Flyers Letters to the editor Speaking in public settings 21 Workplace Writing Goals of workplace writing 1 Plan according to your reader's needs 2 Draft as clearly as possible 3 Revise and edit Workplace writing process 1 How are writing projects assigned? 2 Is most writing done individually, or in work groups? 3 Does the company have a formal editing process? 4 Does the company have a formalized set of writing genres? 5 How are revisions to documents such as work procedures and technical specifications controlled? Business letters Memos Email Resumes and application letters 1 Use categories to construct your resume 2 Submitting your resume PART 5 RESEARCHING AND WRITING 22 Getting Started: Researching and Writing Choosing a topic 1 Respond to your assignment 2 Recognize your interests 3 Browse for an issue or problem Narrowing a topic 1 Broad subject to limited topic 2 Surveying potential topics Aims of research writing 1 Informative research project 2 Persuasive research project Research questions Preliminary thesis Audience inventory Developing a search strategy 1 Resources 2 Search tools 3 Keywording 4 Working bibliography Timeline Assessing sources Reading sources critically 1 Identifying questions Taking notes 1 Cards 2 Research journal Summarizing, paraphrasing, synthesizing, and interpreting 1 Summarizing 2 Paraphrasing 3 Synthesizing 4 Interpreting 23 Library Resources From general to specific sources 1 General resources Kinds of library resources 1 Online catalogs 2 Periodicals, print and electronic indexes, and government documents Evaluating library resources 24 Databases Reference databases Full-text databases Databases containing abstracts Indexing or bibliographic databases Resource databases Evaluating database resources 25 Internet Resources Internet search strategy Search engines 1 General search engines 2 Advanced search engines 3 Metasearch engines 4 Focused search sites and question-oriented sites Kinds of Web sites 1 Individual Web sites 2 Sponsored Web sites 3 Blogs 4 Online periodicals and books; electronic versions of print publications 5 Government publications sites 6 Discussion groups and newsgroups Evaluating online resources 26 Field Resources and Fieldwork Field research Surveys, polls, and questionnaires 1 Surveys and polls 2 Questionnaires Interviews Obtaining human subjects' consent and approval Ethnographies 27 Avoiding Plagiarism and Integrating Sources Plagiarism in college The problem of intention When to document sources Common knowledge Quotations, summaries, facts, and visuals 1 Quotations 2 Summaries and paraphrases 3 Facts, details, and statistics 4 Visuals Integrating sources for specific purposes 1 Introducing a topic and providing background 2 Summarizing prior research 3 Providing examples and cases 4 Showing evidence or support 5 Expanding an idea 6 Taking issue with a claim 28 Writing, Revising, and Presenting Research Planning 1 Think about your goal - again! 2 Review your research questions 3 Redevelop you thesis Drafting An informative research paper 1 Consider readers 2 Look for a pattern 3 Consider familiar plans A persuasive research paper 1 Key elements 2 Plan your reasoning and support 3 Arrange statements and evidence in persuasive order Presentation strategies 1 Create a presentation 2 Use photographs 3 Create a film 4 Design a Web page PART 6 DOCUMENTING SOURCES 29 Ten Serious Documentation Problems Choosing the right documentation style Deciding what to document Understanding the importance of documentation Following a publication's style Incorrect placement of a citation Missing information in a citation Wrong details in a citation Wrong kind of entry in references list Missing information in references entry Wrong details in references entry 30 MLA Documentation In-text citation examples Works Cited list Sample MLA paper 31 APA Documentation In-text (parenthetical) citations References list Sample APA paper 32 CMS Documentation Endnotes and footnotes 1 Select endnotes or footnotes 2 Content and explanatory notes Note examples Bibliography Student CMS paper 33 CSE Documentation Elements of scientific and engineering styles 1 In-text citations 2 Reference list Scientific in-text citations 1 Using the name-and-date method 2 Using the number method Scientific reference list Student CSE paper PART 7 GRAMMAR 34 Ten Serious Grammar Errors Fragment Fused Sentence Unclear Pronoun Reference Lack of Subject-Verb Agreement Dangling Modifier Shift Misused or Missing Apostrophe Unnecessary Comma Missing or Misused Quotation Marks Double Negative 35 Sentence Elements and Patterns Words 1 Recognizing nouns and articles 2 Recognizing pronouns 3 Recognizing verbs 4 Recognizing adjectives 5 Recognizing adverbs 6 Recognizing prepositions 7 Recognizing conjunctions 8 Recognizing interjections Subjects and predicates 1 Creating sentence subjects 2 Creating sentence predicates Phrases and clauses 1 Recognizing prepositional phrases 2 Recognizing absolute phrases 3 Recognizing appositive phrases 4 Recognizing verbal phrases 5 Recognizing subordinate clauses Sentence types 1 Recognizing sentence structures 2 Recognizing sentence purposes 36 Verbs Simple present and past tense 1 Watch for irregular verbs 2 Using present and past tense in academic settings Participles: Recognizing and editing Progressive and perfect tenses: Editing 1 Check the helping verb in progressive tenses 2 Check the form of the past participle in the past perfect tense Troublesome verbs (lie, lay, sit, set) Active and passive voice Clear tense sequence Subjunctive mood 37 Nouns and Pronouns Noun forms Pronoun forms 1 Recognizing pronoun case 2 Choosing subjunctive forms 3 Choosing objective forms 4 Choosing possessive forms Common problems with pronouns 1 Pay attention to compound subjects and objects 2 Watch for we or us with a noun 3 Be alert for subject complements 4 Check appositives 5 Be careful with comparisons using than or as 6 Be cautious when using myself and other reflexive pronouns Who and whom 38 Agreement Subject-verb agreement (simple) Subject-verb agreement (complex) 1 What for plural forms with singular meanings 2 Be alert for collective nouns 3 Check subjects linked by and, or, and nor 4 Pay attention to separated subjects and verbs 5 Recognize unusual word order 6 Watch for there is, there are 7 Pay attention to is, appears, feels, and other linking verbs 8 All, everybody, none; who, which, that - using special subjects 9 Pay special attention to titles and names Pronoun-antecedent agreement 1 Recognize antecedents joined by and, or, and nor 2 Pay attention to everyone, any, something, (indefinite pronouns) as antecedents 3 Watch for collective nouns as antecedents 39 Adjectives and Adverbs What adjectives and adverbs do Avoiding confusion between adjectives and adverbs 1 Figure out what a modifier does in a sentence 2 Be alert for verbs like look, feel, prove, and is 3 Pay special attention to real/really, sure/surely, bad/badly, and good/well Comparatives and superlatives: Correct forms 1 Watch out for illogical comparatives 2 Look for imprecise use of comparatives 3 Check for double comparatives Avoiding double negatives PART 8 SENTENCE PROBLEMS 40 Sentence Fragments Sentence fragments: Recognizing 1 Look for a subject and a verb 2 Look for although, because, that, since, and other subordinating words 3 Look for troublesome constructions Sentence fragments: Editing Partial sentences 41 Comma Splices and Fused Sentences Comma splices and fused sentences: Recognizing Comma splices and fused sentences: Editing 1 Create separate sentences 2 Join main clauses with a comma plus a coordinating conjunction 3 Join main clauses with a semicolon 4 Join main clauses with a semicolon plus a conjunctive adverb or transitional expression 5 Subordinate one of the clauses 6 Join the clauses with a colon 42 Pronoun Reference Unclear pronoun reference: Recognizing and editing 1 Watch for pronouns with several possible antecedents 2 Pay attention to pronouns widely separated from their antecedents 3 Create clear reference chains Nonspecific pronoun reference 1 Use it, which, this, and that with care 2 Look for it used in more than one sense 3 Watch for antecedents that are implied rather than directly stated Matching who, which, and that to antecedents 43 Misplaced, Dangling, and Disruptive Modifiers Misplaced modifiers: Recognizing and editing 1 Pay attention to a modifier's location 2 Pay attention to only, simply, even, and other limiting modifiers 3 Be alert for squinting modifiers 4 Pay attention to clauses beginning with who, which, and that, or other subordinators Dangling modifiers: Recognizing and editing Disruptive modifiers: Recognizing and editing 1 Pay attention to separated subjects and verbs 2 Pay attention to separations between verbs and objects (or complements) 3 Be alert for split infinitives or verb phrases Using absolute phrases effectively 44 Shifts Person and number 1 Pay attention to shifts in person 2 Pay attention to shifts in number Tense and mood 1 Pay attention to shifts in tense 2 Be alert for shifts in mood Voice Direct and indirect quotation 45 Mixed and Incomplete Sentences Mixed sentences: Recognizing and editing 1 Recognizing topic shifts 2 Editing topic shifts 3 Recognizing shifts in grammatical pattern 4 Editing shifts in grammatical pattern Incomplete sentences: Recognizing and editing 1 Recognizing and avoiding incomplete or illogical comparisons 2 Recognizing appropriate and inappropriate omissions 46 Parallelism Problems with parallelism: Recognizing and editing 1 Check for parallelism in a series 2 Decide which words to repeat 3 Pay attention to parallelism with paired sentence elements Creating parallelism beyond the sentence 1 Creating parallel sentence clusters 2 Creating parallel paragraphs Parallelism in lists 47 Coordination and Subordination Creating coordination Problems with coordination: Recognizing and editing 1 Look for excessive coordination 2 Check for illogical coordination Creating subordination Problems with subordination: Recognizing and editing 1 Be alert for illogical or unclear relationships 2 Be careful with troublesome subordinators: as/while, and which, but that, and who 3 Watch out for excessive subordination PART 9 WORDS AND STYLE 48 Wordiness Common types of wordiness 1 Eliminate empty words and phrases 2 Edit wordy and repetitive sentences Cliches, generalizations and overblown language 1 Omit cliches 2 Edit overblown language 3 Eliminate excessive writer's commentary 49 Style, the Dictionary, and Vocabulary Word choice, readers' needs, and writers' purposes 1 Adjust your diction to your readers' needs 2 Adjust your diction to your purpose 3 Adjust your diction to your persona 4 Use specialized diction appropriately Precise diction 1 Choose specific words 2 Choose words with appropriate connotations 3 Edit for archaic words and neologism 4 Edit for idiomatic and trite expressions Using a dictionary and thesaurus 1 Use a dictionary 2 Use a thesaurus Building vocabulary 1 Vocabulary and the writing process 2 Vocabulary and the reading process 50 Appropriate and Respectful Language Home and community language varieties 1 Learn to see dialect variations as "rules" 2 Understand standard English as a function of power and social prestige 3 Become aware of the grammatical variations in your home dialect How dialects influence writing 1 Become aware of oral language influences 2 Consider your word choices 3 Distinguish between slang and dialect 4 Recognize hypercorrection Sexist language: Recognizing and editing 1 Avoid implying stereotyped views 2 Avoid gender-stereotyping roles and occupations 3 Beware of male terms used generically 4 Avoid implying sexist views 5 Avoid making unwarranted claims Discriminatory language: Recognizing and avoiding 1 Avoid derogatory terms 2 Revise unfair stereotypes 3 Choose appropriate group names and terms PART 10 PUNCTUATION, MECHANICS, AND SPELLING 51 Commas Joining sentences Setting off introductory phrases Setting off nonrestrictive modifiers 1 Recognize nonrestrictive and restrictive modifiers 2 Pay special attention to modifying clauses, phrases, and appositives Setting off parenthetical expressions Using commas in a series Separating coordinate adjectives Dates, numbers, addresses, place names, people's titles, and letters 1 Dates 2 Numbers 3 Addresses and place names 4 People's names and titles 5 Salutations and closings of letters Commas with quotations Commas to make your meaning clear Commas that do not belong 1 Do not insert a comma after words like although and because that introduce a clause 2 Do not insert a comma between a subject and a predicate 3 Do not overuse commas 52 Semicolons and Colons Using semicolons 1 Try joining two sentences with a semicolon 2 Use a semicolon with words such as however, on the other hand 3 Use a semicolon with deleted structures 4 Use a semicolon with a complex series Using colons 1 Use a colon to introduce examples, statements, and lists 2 Use a colon to introduce questions 3 Use a colon to separate titles and subtitles 4 Use a colon to join sentences 5 Avoid overuse and misuse of colons 53 Apostrophes Marking possession 1 Add an apostrophe plus -s to mark possession in singular nouns 2 Add an apostrophe to mark possession in plural nouns 3 Add an apostrophe plus -s or an apostrophe to only the last word in a noun phrase Marking contractions and omissions 1 Use an apostrophe to contract a verb form 2 Use an apostrophe to mark plural letters 3 Use an apostrophe to abbreviate a year 4 Use an apostrophe to show colloquial pronunciation 54 Quotation Marks Marking quotations 1 Direct quotations 2 Indirect quotations 3 Quotations inside quotations Block quotations Dialogue Titles of short works Special meanings of words and phrases Irony, sarcasm, and authorial distance 55 Periods, Question Marks, and Exclamation Points Periods 1 End a sentence with a period 2 Use periods in abbreviations Question marks 1 End a direct question with a question mark 2 Watch for other uses of question marks Exclamation points 1 End an emphatic statement with an exclamation point 2 Watch for other uses of exclamation points 56 Special Punctuation Parentheses 1 Use parentheses to set off words or sentences 2 Watch for special uses of parentheses Brackets 1 Use brackets for interpolations 2 Use brackets within parentheses Dashes 1 Use dashes for emphasis 2 Avoid overuse of dashes Ellipses 1 Use ellipses in quotations with omitted words 2 Use ellipses for other gaps Slashes 1 Use slashes with alternative words 2 Use slashes when quoting lines of poetry 57 Capitalization Beginning a sentence 1 Capitalize the opening word in a quoted sentence 2 Capitalize a freestanding sentence in parentheses 3 Decide whether to capitalize following a colon 4 Decide whether to capitalize elements in a series or list Proper nouns and adjectives 1 Capitalize proper nouns and adjectives 2 Capitalize the pronoun I and the interjection O Titles of works 58 Italics (Underlining) Following conventions 1 Italicize titles of long or major works 2 Italicize names of specific vehicles 3 Italicize foreign words and phrases 4 Italicize words, letters, and numbers named as words Emphasis 59 Hyphens and Word Division Dividing words Joining words 1 Check hyphens in compound words 2 Hyphenate familiar compounds correctly 3 Hyphenate compound modifiers correctly 4 Use hyphens to create new compounds 60 Numbers Spelling out or using numerals 1 Spell out number of one or two words 2 Spell out number that begin a sentence 3 Express related numbers in a consistent form Special conventions 1 Use numerals when appropriate 2 Spell out numbers when appropriate Too many numbers 61 Abbreviations Familiar abbreviations 1 Abbreviate titles with proper names 2 Abbreviate references to people and organizations 3 Abbreviate dates and numbers correctly Using abbreviations sparingly 1 Avoid inappropriate abbreviations 2 Limit Latin abbreviations 62 Spelling Spelling and the computer 1 Understand how spell checkers works 2 Use a spell checker cautiously Recognizing and correcting spelling errors 1 Pause to think 2 Look it up 3 Be alert for common patterns of misspelling 4 Watch for commonly misspelled words 5 Get help Long-term strategies

Product Details

  • ISBN13: 9781292040387
  • Format: Paperback
  • Number Of Pages: 848
  • ID: 9781292040387
  • weight: 1738
  • ISBN10: 1292040386
  • edition: 6th edition

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