The Modern Devices: The Simple Physics of Sophisticated Technology

The Modern Devices: The Simple Physics of Sophisticated Technology

By: Eva Halkiadakis (author), Charles L. Joseph (author), Santiago Bernal (author), Dave Maiullo (author)Hardback

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Description

Focuses on the common recurring physical principles behind sophisticated modern devices This book discusses the principles of physics through applications of state-of-the-art technologies and advanced instruments. The authors use diagrams, sketches, and graphs coupled with equations and mathematical analysis to enhance the reader s understanding of modern devices. Readers will learn to identify common underlying physical principles that govern several types of devices, while gaining an understanding of the performance trade-off imposed by the physical limitations of various processing methods. The topics discussed in the book assume readers have taken an introductory physics course, college algebra, and have a basic understanding of calculus. * Describes the basic physics behind a large number of devices encountered in everyday life, from the air conditioner to Blu-ray discs * Covers state-of-the-art devices such as spectrographs, photoelectric image sensors, spacecraft systems, astronomical and planetary observatories, biomedical imaging instruments, particle accelerators, and jet engines * Includes access to a book companion site that houses Power Point slides Modern Devices: The Simple Physics of Sophisticated Technology is designed as a reference for professionals that would like to gain a basic understanding of the operation of complex technologies. The book is also suitable as a textbook for upper-level undergraduate non-major students interested in physics.

About Author

Charles L. Joseph, PhD, is a retired research professor from the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the Rutgers University, who specialized in technology development for NASA flight missions. Prof. Joseph has more than 30 years experience working closely with aerospace and electro-optical companies as well as government laboratories, taking technologies from experimental breadboard devices to ruggedized instruments suitable for NASA missions. He was a co-investigator and the detector scientist on STIS, a second-generation instrument for the Hubble Space Telescope. Santiago Bernal, PhD, is an associated research scientist at the Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics (IREAP) at the University of Maryland. Dr. Bernal received his B.S. in physics from the National University of Colombia in 1981. He joined the IREAP in 2000 and has since been the leading experimentalist on the University of Maryland Electron Ring.

Contents

Preface xi About the Companion Website xv 1 Principles of Physics and the Relevance to Modern Technologies 1 1.1 CM, EM, and QM: The Backbone of Physics 3 1.2 Photonics and Electronics 5 2 Everyday Home Appliances 9 2.1 The Air Conditioner 10 2.2 Microwave Ovens 18 2.3 Smoke Detectors 25 2.4 Compact Discs, Digital Versatile Discs, and Blu-Ray Discs 27 2.5 Photocopiers and Fax Machines 37 3 Devices Encountered in Modern Life 43 3.1 Metal Detectors for Airports and Traffic Lights 43 3.2 Barcode Scanners, Quick Response Codes, and Radio-Frequency Identification Readers 47 3.3 Global Positioning 53 3.4 Transportation Technologies 57 3.4.1 Internal Combustion Engines versus Electric Motors 57 3.4.2 Alternative Fuels 58 3.4.3 Speed Radar Guns 60 3.4.4 High-Speed Rail 67 4 Vacuum Systems: Enabling High-Tech Industries 69 4.1 Vacuum Chamber Technology 70 4.2 Physics of Some Vacuum Gauges 76 4.3 Low Vacuum via Venturi, Mechanical, or Sorption Pumps 78 4.4 HV via Diffusion, Turbomolecular, or Cryogenic Pumps 80 4.5 UHV via Ion Pumps 84 5 Cleanrooms, an Enabling Technology 87 6 Solid-State Electronics 91 6.1 Conducting, Semiconducting, and Insulating Materials 95 6.2 Resistors, Capacitors, and Inductors 101 6.3 Diodes and Transistors 110 6.4 FET, JFET, MOSFET, CMOS, and TTL 119 6.5 Summary 124 7 High-Tech Semiconductor Fabrication 127 7.1 Thin Films 127 7.2 Thin-Film Deposition Methods 132 7.3 High-Purity Crystals via MBE 138 7.4 Photolithography and Etch Techniques 141 7.5 In Situ and Intermediate-Stage Tests 145 7.6 Device Structures and IC Packaging 152 8 Materials Science Invaluable High-Tech Contributions 155 8.1 The Use of Composite Materials 156 8.2 Thin-Film Multilayers 157 8.3 Nanotechnology 158 9 Light Sources 161 9.1 Incandescent Lamps 166 9.2 Gas Discharge Lamps 168 9.3 Fluorescent Lamps 171 9.4 Light Emitting Diodes 174 9.5 X-Ray Sources 175 9.6 Lasers 177 9.7 Synchrotron Light Sources 180 9.8 Summary of Light Sources 180 10 Some Basic Physics of Optical Systems 183 10.1 Refractive and Reflective Optics and Their Uses 184 10.2 Polarization and Birefringence 188 10.2.1 Law of Malus and Brewster s Angle 188 10.2.2 Dichroism and Birefringence 190 10.2.3 Retarder Plates and Circular Polarization 192 10.3 Diffraction 194 10.3.1 Huygens Principle and Diffraction from a Single Slit 194 10.3.2 Fresnel Zone Plate 196 10.3.3 Diffraction Gratings 198 10.4 Holography 200 10.4.1 Basic (Absorption) Holography 200 10.4.2 Temporal and Spatial Coherence 202 10.4.3 Other Methods of Holography and Applications 203 10.5 Primary Aberrations 205 11 Optical Couplers Including Optical Fibers 217 11.1 Optical Fibers and Hollow Waveguides 218 11.2 Couplers for Long Distances 223 11.3 Optical Couplers as a Means of Electronic Isolation 228 12 Spectrographs: Reading the Bar Code of Nature 231 12.1 Prisms, Ruled Gratings, and Holographic Gratings 240 12.2 Long-Slit Spectrographs 248 12.3 Integral Field Unit and Fabry Perot 249 12.4 Echelle Spectrographs 254 12.5 Raman Spectrographs 255 13 Optical and Electron Microscopy 259 13.1 Optical Microscopes 260 13.1.1 The Magnifier 260 13.1.2 The Compound Microscope 261 13.1.3 Numerical Aperture, Resolution, and Depth of Field 262 13.1.4 Alternative Methods of Optical Microscopy 265 13.2 The Transmission Electron Microscope 266 13.3 Electron Matter Interactions 271 13.4 Bragg s Diffraction 273 13.5 Scanning Probe Microscopes 275 14 Photoelectric Image Sensors 277 14.1 Solid-State Visible Wavelength Sensors 280 14.2 Photoemissive Devices for UV and X-Rays 284 14.3 Infrared Thermal Sensors and Night Vision Sensors 287 15 Image Display Systems 291 15.1 The Human Visual System 293 15.2 Who Invented Television? 300 15.3 Traditional and High-Definition Tv Display Formats 301 15.4 Cathode Ray Tubes 306 15.5 Liquid Crystal Displays 308 15.6 Plasma Displays 310 15.7 Digital Micro-Mirror Devices 311 15.8 Touch Screens 314 15.9 Electrophoretic Displays 315 15.10 Near-Eye Displays, Augmented Reality, and Virtual Reality 317 15.11 Stereoscopic, Autostereoscopic, and Holographic 3D Displays 319 16 Spacecraft Systems 325 16.1 Operating in Space: An Overview 326 16.2 Attitude Control System 330 16.3 Spacecraft Power 337 16.4 Thermal and Other Environmental Control 339 16.5 Command, Control, and Telemetry 341 16.6 Launch, Propulsion, Station Keeping, and Deorbit 345 17 Astronomical and Planetary Observatories 353 17.1 Telescope Designs 354 17.2 Very Large, Ultra-Lightweight or Segmented Mirrors 358 17.3 Adaptive Optics and Active Optics 362 17.4 Space Observatories 365 17.5 Planetary Probes 372 18 Telecommunications 377 18.1 Physical Connections: Phone Lines, Coaxial Cable, and Fiber Optics 378 18.2 Analog Free-Space Channels: TV, Radio, Microwave Connections 384 18.3 Digitally Modulated Free-Space Channels 390 18.4 The Network, Multiplexing, and Data Compression 392 19 Physics of Instruments for Biology and Medicine 397 19.1 Imaging Instruments 397 19.1.1 CT Scanners 398 19.1.2 Magnetic Resonance Imaging 398 19.1.3 Ultrasonography and Ultrasonic Lithotripsy 408 19.2 Minimally Invasive Probes and Surgery 410 19.3 Laser Technologies 411 19.4 Miscellaneous Electronic Devices 415 20 A-Bombs, H-Bombs, and Radioactivity 419 20.1 Alpha, Beta, and Gamma Ray Radiation 421 20.2 A-Bombs, H-Bombs, and Dirty Bombs 423 20.3 Radiation Safety, Detection, and Protection 428 20.4 Industrial and Medical Applications 431 21 Power Generation 433 21.1 Principles of Electric Generators 434 21.2 Power Storage and Power Content of Fuels 435 21.3 The Power Grid 439 22 Particle Accelerators Atom and Particle Smashers 443 22.1 Lorentz Force, Deflection, and Focusing 446 22.2 Beam Generation, Manipulation, and Characterization 448 22.3 DC Accelerators 450 22.4 RF Linear Accelerators 450 22.4.1 Motivation and History 450 22.4.2 Linac Components and Operation 452 22.4.3 Beam Bunch Stability and RF Bucket 454 22.4.4 Power Budget and Linac Applications 454 22.5 Cyclotrons 456 22.6 Synchrotron Radiation and Light Sources 462 22.6.1 Dipole Radiation and Larmor s Formula 462 22.6.2 Wigglers and Undulators 464 22.6.3 First-to-Fourth Generations of Light Sources and Applications of SR 466 22.6.4 Free-Electron Lasers 468 23 Jet Engines, Stratospheric Balloons, and Airships 471 23.1 Ramjets, Turbojets, and Turbofan Jets 474 23.2 Stratospheric Balloons 476 23.3 Future Airships 484 Appendix A Statistics and Error Analysis 489 Bibliography 497 Index 503

Product Details

  • ISBN13: 9780470900437
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 528
  • ID: 9780470900437
  • weight: 990
  • ISBN10: 0470900431

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  • Saver Delivery: Yes
  • 1st Class Delivery: Yes
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