This text describes how the failure of racial integration in New York schools led to demands for increased parental powers over schooling and ultimately for "community control". The story of the school reform movement citywide and especially that which grew up on the three officially-sanctioned demonstration districts in East Harlem, Ocean Hill-Brownsville and the Lower East Side is told in detail. The clash between parent and community activists on one hand and majority factions within the teaching and supervisory orgaizations on the other constitutes the bulk of this work. Matters relating to racial, class and gender configuarations are assessed. Broad issues of white racism and black rasicm come under scrutiny, not least in the context of charges and counter-charges which surfaced at the height of the conflict about black anti-Semitism and Jewish anti-black behaviour.
Part 1 Race matters - New York City, 1955-65: the civil rights' coalition under strain; Jewish-Americans and African-Americans; the politics of law and order; race and schooling; integration's poor showing; special programs for ghetto schools. Part 2 Crisis in Black and White, 1966-67: East Harlem's new school; the Civilian Review Board; the Ford Foundation and proposals for I.S. 201; winter of discontent - I.S. 201 Ocean Hill-Brownsville; the People's Board of Education; Harlem's P.S. 36-125; other areas; school protests; Brooklyn CORE, Spring 1967; the Bundy Panel; the mixed coalition for school reform. Part 3 The invisible become visible - The demonstration districts - 1967-68: planning the Ocean Hill-Brownsville Demonstration District; the UFT's strike, 1967; deepening rifts in Ocean Hill-Brownsville; the I.S. 201 complex; the Two Bridges district; the Joan of arc proposal; the bureaucracy at 110 Livingston Street; the Bundy Report; crisis in East Harlem - the Malcolm X Memorial Rally; the price paid - Lee Campbell and John Harchell; the George Fuccillo affair; crisis in Ocean Hill-Brownsville - Spring 1968. Part 4 A visibility problem, Summer 1968: the disputed 19 staff; sorting the evidence; the decentralization debate in Albany; teacher's "for" the local governing board; local parents "against" the demonstration board; towards the Rivers' inquiry; Mr Rivers adjudicates; New York City's African-American militants - Summer of 1968. Part 5 The unheavenly city - New York, Fall 1968: city boards re-organizations; the September teachers' strike; renew strike action; the brink - the UFT, October-November 1968; aftermath of the strikes in Ocean Hill-Brownsville; division in the city, Fall 1968; school personnel; the Central Labour Council; racial minorities; inside Ocean Hill-Brownsville; name-calling and the antisemitism scare of 1968; the scuppering of the reform coalition from the top; the grassroot's movement for educational change. Part 6 Movement days in the deep north at the end, 1969-70: the I.S. 201 project after the school strike; the new antisemitism scare; the student revolution of 1969; the state legislature, 1969; Ocean Hill-Brownsville during 1969; the Two Bridges project; the mayoral campaign of 1969; the 1970 school elections; District 23 and "skin politics" during 1970-71; post-mortems on the Ocean Hill-Brownsville project. Part 7 Interpretations - race, class and gender in the community control controversy. (Part contents).