The muscular ideal is increasingly becoming the preferred body type for men, adolescent boys and even some women. Why is this body type the new ideal, and how did it develop? Why are some people driven to achieve heightened muscularity, and how do they do it? What risks to physical and mental health are involved when extreme behaviors are undertaken in the pursuit of the muscular ideal? This edited book draws on new research to provide an overview of the muscular ideal, including historical and present socioeconomic trends, assessment and measurement issues, and clinical presentation of disorders such as muscle dysmorphia. Chapters also cover related issues such as steroid use, repeated cosmetic surgery, and prevention issues. The target audience includes sport and health psychologists, clinical and counseling psychologists, and graduate students in psychology, sociology, gender roles, and health and sport science courses.