The unique nanoscale properties of renewable biomaterials present valuable opportunities in the field of nanoscience and technology. Lignocellulosic biomass is an important industrial resource which can be used for the production of highly efficient and environmentally sustainable nanomaterials. The Nanoscience and Technology of Renewable Biomaterials presents the latest advances in biomass nanotechnology, including leading research from academia and industry, as well as a future vision for the nanotechnology of forest products. Topics covered include:* A fundamental review of the relationship between nanotechnology and lignocellulosic biomass* Characterization methods for biomass on the nanometer scale* Cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin as nanoscopic biomaterials-physical features, chemical properties and potential nanoproducts* Nanoscale surface engineering* Renewable materials as scaffolds for tissue engineering* Nanoscopically-controlled drug delivery This book will be a valuable resource for chemists, chemical engineers, bioscience researchers and materials scientists who are interested in harnessing the nanotechnological features of renewable biomaterials.
Dr. Lucian A. Lucia is Associate Professor of Chemistry and Dr. Orlando J Rojas is Associate Professor, both in the Wood And Paper Science Department at North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC.
Chapter 1 - A Fundamental Review of the Relationships between Nanotechnology and Lignocellulosic Biomass Theodore H. Wegner and E. Philip Jones 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Use of Lignocellulosic-based Materials 1.3 Green Chemistry and Green Engineering 1.4 Nanotechnology 1.5 Nanotechnology-enabled Product Possibilities 1.6 Wood Nanodimensional Structure and Composition 1.7 Nanomanufacturing 1.8 Nanotechnology Health and Safety Issues 1.9 Instrumentation, Metrology, and Standards for Nanotechnology 1.10 A Nanotechnology Agenda for the Forest Products Industry 1.11 Forest Products Industry Technology Priorities 1.12 Nanotechnology Priority Areas to Meet the Needs of the Forest Products Industry 1.13 Summary References 2 Biogenesis of Cellulose Nanofibrils by a Biological Nanomachine Candace H. Haigler and Alison W. Roberts 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Background 2.3 CesA Protein is a Major Component of the Plant CSC 2.4 The Functional Operation of the CSC 2.5 Phylogenetic Analysis 2.5.1 Possible Functional Diversification of CS Proteins 2.6 Conclusion References 3 Tools for the Characterization of Biomass at the Nanometer Scale James F. Beecher, Christopher G. Hunt and J.Y. Zhu 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Water in Biomass 3.3 Measurement of Specific Biomass Properties 3.4 Microscopy and Spectroscopy 3.5 Summary References 4 Tools to Probe Nanoscale Surface Phenomena in Cellulose Thin Films: Applications in the Area of Adsorption and Friction Junlong Song, Yan Li, Juan P. Hinestroza and Orlando J. Rojas 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Polyampholytes Applications in Fiber Modification 4.3 Cellulose Thin Films 4.4 Friction Phenomena in Cellulose Systems 4.5 Lubrication 4.6 Boundary Layer Lubrication 4.7 Techniques to Study Adsorption and Friction Phenomena 4.8 Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) 4.9 Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation (QCM) 4.10 Application of SPR and QCM to Probe Adsorbed Films 4.11 Lateral Force Microscopy 4.12 Summary Acknowledgements References 5 Polyelectrolyte Multilayers for Fibre Engineering Rikard Lingstrom, Erik Johansson and Lars Wagberg 5.1 Background 5.2 The Formation of PEM on Wood Fibres 5.3 Formation of PEM with Different Polyelectrolytes and the Properties of the Layers Formed 5.4 Formation of PEM on Fibres 5.5 Influence of PEM on Properties of Fibre Networks 5.6 Influence of PEM on Adhesion Between Surfaces 5.7 Concluding Remarks Acknowledgements References 6 Hemicelluloses at Interfaces: Some Aspects of the Interactions Tekla Tammelin, Arja Paananen and Monika Osterberg 6.1 Overview 6.2 Introduction 6.3 Theoretical Basis for Interpreting QCM-D and AFM Data 6.4 Experimental 6.5 Results 6.6 Discussion 6.7 Conclusions Acknowledgements References 7 Lignin: Functional Biomaterial with Potential in Surface Chemistry and Nanoscience Shannon M. Notley and Magnus Norgren 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Lignin Synthesis and Structural Aspects 7.3 Isolation of Lignin from Wood, Pulp and Pulping Liquors 7.4 Solution Properties of Kraft Lignin 7.5 Surface Chemistry of Solid State Lignin 7.6 Lignin: Current and Future Uses 7.7 Concluding Remarks References 8 Cellulose and Chitin as Nanoscopic Biomaterials Jacob D. Goodrich, Deepanjan Bhattacharya and William T. Winter 8.1 Overview 8.2 Introduction 8.3 Preparation and Microscopic Characterization of Cellulose and Chitin Nanoparticles 8.4 NMR Characterization of Cellulose and Chitin Nanoparticles 8.5 Chemical Modification of Cellulose and Chitin Nanoparticles 8.6 Nanocomposite Properties 8.7 Conclusions Acknowledgements References 9 Bacterial Cellulose and its Polymeric Nanocomposites Marie-Pierre G. Laborie 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Bacterial Cellulose: Biosynthesis and Basic Physical and Mechanical Properties 9.3 BC Nanocomposites by in situ Polymerization 9.4 BC Nanocomposites by Polymer Impregnation and Solution Casting 9.5 BC Nanocomposites via Biomimetic Approaches 9.6 BC/Polymer Nanocomposites Based on Bacterial Cellulose Nanocrystals 9.7 Conclusions and Prospects References 10 Cellulose Nanocrystals in Polymer Matrices John Simonsen and Youssef Habibi 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Background on CNXL Material Science 10.3 Polymer Nanocomposite Systems 10.4 Thermal Properties 10.5 Mechanical Properties of CNXL 10.6 Transport Properties References 11 Development and Application of Naturally Renewable Scaffold Materials for Bone Tissue Engineering Seth D. McCullen, Ariel D. Hanson, Lucian A. Lucia and Elizabeth G. Loboa 11.1 Introduction 11.2 Natural Renewable Materials for Bone Tissue Engineering 11.3 Bone Background 11.4 Conclusions and Future Directions References 12 Template Synthesis of Nanostructured Metals Using Cellulose Nanocrystal Yongsoon Shin and Gregory J. Exarhos 12.1 Overview 12.2 Introduction 12.3 Metal Oxide and Metal Carbides 12.4 Metal Nanoparticles on CNXL 12.5 Conclusion Acknowledgements References