This volume covers the last century (interpreted broadly) of the traditional western Middle Ages. Often seen as a time of doubt, decline and division, the period is shown here as a period of considerable innovation and development, much of which resulted from a conscious attempt by contemporaries to meet the growing demands of society and to find practical solutions to the social, religious and political problems which beset it. The volume consists of four sections. Part I focuses on both the ideas and other considerations which guided men as they sought good government, and on the practical development of representation. Part II deals with aspects of social and economic development at a time of change and expansion. Part III discusses the importance of the life of the spirit: religion, education and the arts. Moving from the general to the particular, Part IV concerns itself with the history of the countries of Europe, emphasis being placed on the growth of the nation states of the 'early modern' world.
List of plates; List of maps; List of genealogical tables; List of contributors; Preface; Acknowledgments; List of abbreviations; Part I. Government: 1. Politics: theory and practice Jean-Philippe Genet; 2. Representation (since the thirteenth century) Wim Blockmans; Popes and councils Antony Black; Part II. Economic and Social Developments: 4. The European nobility Philippe Contamine; 5. Rural Europe Christopher Dyer; 6. Urban Europe Barrie Dobson; 7. Commerce and trade Wendy Childs; 8. War Christopher Allmand; 9. Exploration and discovery Felipe Fern...ndez-Armesto; Part III. Spiritual, Cultural and Artistic Life: 10. Religious belief and practice Francis Rapp; 11. Schools and universities Jacques Verger; 12. Humanism Robert Black; 13. Manuscripts and books Malcolm Vale; 14. The beginning of printing David McKitterick; 15. Architecture and painting Paul Crossley; 16. Music Gareth Curtis; Part IV. The Development of European States: 17. Germany and the Empire Tom Scott; 18. Hus, the Hussites and Bohemia John Klassen; 19. France (a) France at the end of the Hundred Years War (c.1420-61) Malcolm Vale; (b) The recovery of France, 1450-1520 Bernard Chevalier; 20. Burgundy Bertrand Schnerb; 21. England (a) Lancastrian England Edward Powell (b) Yorkist and early Tudor England Rosemary Horrox; 22. The Celtic world (a) Ireland Art Cosgrove (b) Scotland: 1406-1513 Jenny Wormald; 23. Italy (a) the northern Italian states Michael Mallett (b) The papal states and the kingdom of Naples Alan Ryder; 24. The Iberian peninsula (a) Aragon Mario Del Treppo (b) Castile and Navarre Angus MacKay (c) Portugal, Armindo de Sousa; 25. The Swiss Confederation Roger Sablonier; 26. The states of Scandinavia c.1390-c.1536 Thomas Riis; 27. Hungary: crown and estates Janos Bak; 28. The kingdom of Poland and the grand duchy of Lithuania, 1370-1506 Aleksander Gieysztor; Russia Nancy Shields Kollmann; 30. Byzantium: the Roman Orthodox world, 1393-1492 Anthony Bryer; 31. The Latin east Anthony Luttrell; 32. The Ottoman world Elizabeth Zachariadou; Conclusion Christopher Allmand; Appendix: genealogical tables; Primary sources and secondary works arranged by chapter; General index.