American feminism has always been about more than the struggle for individual rights and equal treatment with men. There's also a vital and continuing tradition of women's reform that sought social as well as individual rights and argued for the dismantling of the masculine standard. In this much anticipated book, Dorothy Sue Cobble retrieves the forgotten feminism of the previous generations of working women, illuminating the ideas that inspired them and the reforms they secured from employers and the state. This socially and ethnically diverse movement for change emerged first from union halls and factory floors and spread to the "pink collar" domain of telephone operators, secretaries, and airline hostesses. From the 1930s to the 1980s, these women pursued answers to problems that are increasingly pressing today: how to balance work and family and how to address the growing economic inequalities that confront us. The Other Women's Movement traces their impact from the 1940s into the feminist movement of the present. The labor reformers whose stories are told in The Other Women's Movement wanted equality and "special benefits," and they did not see the two as incompatible.
They argued that gender differences must be accommodated and that "equality" could not always be achieved by applying an identical standard of treatment to men and women. The reform agenda they championed--an end to unfair sex discrimination, just compensation for their waged labor, and the right to care for their families and communities--launched a revolution in employment practices that carries on today. Unique in its range and perspective, this is the first book to link the continuous tradition of social feminism to the leadership of labor women within that movement.
Dorothy Sue Cobble is Professor of Labor Studies, History, and Women's and Gender Studies at Rutgers University where she directs the Institute for Research on Women. She is the author of "Dishing It Out: Waitresses and Their Unions in the Twentieth Century" and "Women and Unions: Forging a Partnership".
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS ix PREFACE xi TEXT ABBREVIATIONS xiii INTRODUCTION: The Missing Wave 1 CHAPTER ONE: The Other Labor Movement 11 CHAPTER TWO: Social Feminism Remade 50 CHAPTER THREE: Women's Job Rights 69 CHAPTER FOUR: Wage Justice 94 CHAPTER FIVE: The Politics of the "Double Day" 121 CHAPTER SIX: Labor Feminism at High Tide 145 CHAPTER SEVEN: The Torch Passes 180 CHAPTER EIGHT: An Unfinished Agenda 206 EPILOGUE: The Next Wave 223 ABBREVIATIONS FOR NOTES 229 NOTES 231 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 299 PERMISSIONS 301 INDEX 303