The decades after 1750 saw the Ottoman Empire undergo tremendous stresses that culminated in the first stirrings of nationalism among Christian subjects and an irrevocable commitment to reform by the Muslim state. By 1830, Serbs and Greeks had fought successfully for autonomy or independence, and Sultan Mahmud II had prepared the way for the Tanzimat by abolishing the Janissary Corps and other discredited institutions. In spite of the importance of this era for both Ottoman and Balkan history, marking as it does the transition from the pre-modern to the modern, scholars have shown remarkably little interest in the factors triggering such important developments.The contributors to this volume examine instances of problems affecting the Balkans and of state efforts to fix them. Issues considered include law and justice, centralization and provincial autonomy, taxation and land disputes, and the stresses of war. The cases studied here should give both the specialist and the general reader a clearer picture of the forces of change at work in the most important region of the empire during this era of transition.